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Slovakia has a population of almost 5.4 million people living in an area bounded by Poland, Czech Republic,Hungary and Ukraine. Slovak was a minority nationality in the Northern Counties (Upland) of Hungarythat were carved of Hungary after WW I and became the Slovak components of Czechoslovakia, until Hitler broke Czechoslovakia up (Munich Agreement), incorporating Sudetenland into Germany, making Bohemia, Moravia into Protectorate, and Slovakiaan independent state.
Prior to WW II, there were some 150,000 Jews living in Slovakia. The Slovakian government paid the Germans500 marks per head for the 'privilege' of deporting their Jewish citizens to Nazi death camps. Only 25,000 survived. Most of those today are over 70 and many have intermarried, so the future of these Jews is pretty bleak. In 2002, there are approximately 4.000 Jews left - mostly elderly.
The country has been settled by (or ruled by) Celts, Romans, Slavic tribes, Magyars, Tartars, Turks and Habsburgs, Germans and Soviets and became a country in 1993 after the so-called "Velvet Divorce" from the Czech Republic.
The current ethnic composition of Slovakia is: 85.8% Slovak, 9.7% Hungarian, 1.7% Roma/Gypsy, 0.8% Czech, 0.4% Rusyn and 0.2% Ukrainian
Fero Alexander is Executive Director of Slovakia's Central Union of Jewish Religious Communities
"Dictionary of all Villages in Slovakia" Complete historic data and photos with all the old and new names for all villages in current Slovakia from their first ever mention in written records. The three volumes are in Slovak and are a valuable tool to any serious genealogist. Published by the Slovak Academy of Science in 1977. Volume I is 526 pages; Volume II is 517 pages and Volume III is 532 pages. You might try locating the set at the library or try the following site http://slovakheritage.org/Shopping/Books/vlastslovnik.htm
"Memories That Won't Go Away, A Tribute to the Children of the Kindertransport" Authored by Michele Gold
"The Problem of the Immigrant" Authored by James Davenport Whelpley and published in London by Chapman & Hall Ltd in 1905. Chapter 14 -Austria-Hungary features an English translation of the Hungarian Emigration Law of 1903. Use this site to research in Slovakia. http://www.iarelative.com/hung1903/
"Vital Statistic Records in the Slovakian Archives" Information about Avotaynu microfiche form of these Jewish vital statistical records can be found at http://www.avotaynu.com/microf.htm
Before WW II, there were some 100,000 to 150,000 Jews living in the country, but only 25,000 survived the Holocaust. All but 282 of the Jews in death camps were killed. A document was recently found that broke the wartime deportation agreement between the Germans and the Nazi-puppet Slovak state for the deportation of the Jews in 1942. Slovakia was the only sovereign nation in wartime Europe willing to pay for the removal of its Jews. The money came from the stolen Jewish property.
Today, most of Slovakia's 4,000 to 6,000 Jews live in the capital of Slovakia, Bratislava and are mostly over 65 years old. There are newly reopened Talmud Torahs in both Bratislava and Kosice -- the home of most Slovak Jewish youth.
Gary Luke firstname.lastname@example.org has a list of fixed surnames taken on by Jews in Arva Megye of Hungary in 1785. The first few pages appear to be conditions of residency in Latin and in old Germanic handwriting. The area borders on Slovakia and Poland and is south of Krakow. Most of the district is now in Slovakia, with a small part in Poland. The main towns areTrstena, Dolny Kubin and Manestovo. http://www.hungarianvillagefinder.com/HVFIndex2/04_ARVA.html
The Electronic Embassy Web site turned twenty years old on May 1, 2015. When the site was launched, only two of Washington's foreign embassies were on the Web. Now, most of the embassies have homes on the Internet to complement their addresses on Embassy Row. Business Directoriesallow companies serving the international community, and those working, living, and traveling http://www.embassy.org/
Jews were shipped off to the concentration camps of Germany for extermination. However, families in villages just like Litmanova, did harbor many Jewish children during the war, only to encounter intense hostility from fellow villagers after the war for threatening the security of the entire village by their acts of generosity. In March 1939, when Slovakia declared itself independent, persecutions of Jews increased and specific and Jewish measures were exacted. Mass deportations of Jews began in March 1942. On August 29, 1944, German soldiers entered Slovakia to quell an uprising by Slovakia's resistance and instituted a new round of deportations.
A film by Yuri Dojc on Jewish heritage in rural Slovakia. Dojc is a Jewish-Slovakian émigré, child of Holocaust survivors. There are some interviews with Holocaust survivors who stayed in Slovakia. The URL is http://www.lastfolio.com/
Open Street Maps The crowd-sourced mapping projectOpenStreetMaphas amassed a million contributors since its inception in 2005 and, according to navigation app maker Skobbler, boasts greater accuracy in England, Russia and Germany than rivals such as Google Maps. I tried the site and found an accurate drawing of my father's ancestral town Tal'ne, Ukraine. Almost every country is available as is most towns http://openstreetmap.org
A project to safeguard Jewish treasures in Slovakia has been initiated as written by Ruth Ellen Gruber in an article printed in the April/May 2013 issue of Hadassah magazine. More than 100 synagogue buildings and nearly 700 Jewish cemeteries remain scattered in a country only twice the size of New Hampshire. The total Jewish population is estimated at about 3,000. the Heritage Route is a tourist and educational trail that links two dozen key sites in all eight regions of the country - synagogues and Jewish cemeteries as well as Jewish museums and Holocaust memorials http://www.hadassahmagazine.org/site/apps/nlnet/content.aspx?c=twI6LmN7IzF&b=6725377&ct=13077875
Yad Vashem started getting lists of names of Slovak Jews who perished during WW2. These lists are assembled by different organizations only now. One is the "Hiding Child project" in Kosice. http://www.cjh.org/pdfs/Czech-Slovak.pdf
Over 14,800 surnames being researched - This Eastern Slovakia, Slovak and Carpatho-Rusyn Genealogical Research Page offers tools, resources and information to help search Slovak or Carpatho-Rusyn family history and ancestry. Some Jewish names are represented.
There also many links to a wealth of information on the area now known as Slovakia including a pictorial tour of the country and a list of towns and Villages in the country. http://www.iarelatives.com/search/p_q.htm
With this LingvoSoft smart dictionary software on your computer, you can easily switch between English and Yiddish, (or any one of many other languages) for prompt translations of 400,000 words both ways! Download Free Trial now
Just in case you didn't think of it, contact a nearby university or college's foreign language department. They may offer to write letters and translate letters into English. A nominal fee is usually charged.
Okres - the present administrative subdivision name
The word has about the same meaning as 'district' or 'county' in English. It is the same word and meaning in both the Czech and Slovak Republics. Check out this site http://carpatho-rusyn.org/villages.htm
A village in Slovakia, near Bratislava. A community was established at Alistál in the 14th century by Jews from Bohemia and Moravia, who exported horses from the nearby royal stables. A synagogue was built in 1579. A community is mentioned again in records of 1780. Jews without residential rights in Pressburg (Bratislava) were enabled to live in Alistál under royal protection. In 1929 the Jewish population in Alistál and environs numbered 259; approximately half were occupied in agriculture. The community came to an end during World War http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0001_0_00815. html
Banska / Bystrica
Banska Bystrica was a mining town and settled partially by ethnic Germans, Jews were not permitted to live there until 1858. The Jewish congregation was established in 1868. The congregation chose the*Neolog(reform) rite. After World War I, Jews moved to the town from the neighboring village of Radvan, where a congregation had existed for about 100 years, and established an Orthodox congregation. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0003_0_01981 .html
Bardejov is located near the Slovak - Polish border, about 140 km from Cracow. The first synagogue outside the city was completed in the early XIX century, the larger one in Neo-Gothic style was consecrated in 1830. Bardejov was a center of Hasidism and a community maintained a cheder, Talmud Torah, and yeshiva. Before World War II, more than 4,000 Jews lived in Bardejov. Nearly the entire community was exterminated during the Holocaust in Auschwitz-BirkenauLublin district http://www.jewish-guide.pl/slovakia/40
The capital city of Slovakia with a population of 441,500 - See Pressburgand the main seat of Jewish life in Slovakia as well as the only really viable Jewish community in Slovakia. It is situated near the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, straddling the Danube river. It is the country's largest city and it became part of the Great Moravian Empire around the year 900 AD. It is located in Central Europe and is a 20 minute train trip from Prague or a 50 minute cab ride from Vienna.
In the town's main square is the centuries old Town Hall with a clock tower, and around the square itself, you can enjoy several of the rather whimsical metal statues including a Napoleonic army soldier sprawling on a bench, a photographer with a box camera and called "Cumil" of a bronze man poking his head and part of his torso out of a manhole.
It was then brought into the Hungarian Kingdom at the end of the 10th century, and finally became part of the Czechoslovak Republic. Following the break-up of Czechoslovakia, it became the capital of the Slovak Republic. It is an industrial center and the largest wine-growing community of the region.
A town in N. Slovakia, now Slovak Republic. According to existing documentation, Jews arrived in the city of Dolni Kubin, and in the Orava region, by the beginning of the 18thcentury, though it can be assumed that they were in the area earlier.
Moravian Jews were the pioneers of Jewish settlement in the entire region of northern upper Hungary, from Čadca to Bardejov.*HolešovJewry, in northern Moravia, settled in many Jewish cities of this region, including DolniKubin in 1710. During their initial years in the city, the Jews rented houses from local inhabitants and were quick to exploit the city's strategic location between Cracow and Vienna for business purposes. In 1775 the Jews built their first synagogue. They also acquired land for a cemetery http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0005_0_ 05308.html
A town in N.W. Slovakia. Until 1992 Czechoslovak Republic, since Slovak Republic. Jews started to settle in Galanta by the end of the 17thcentury. The earliest document is from 1729, when Count Ferdinand Eszterhazy granted theJewish community a room for prayer and ground for a cemetery. In 1830, 556 Jews lived in Galanta (31.2% of the total); in 1840 there were 430; and in 1850 there were 670 Jews in the town. In 1880 they numbered 714 (32.8%) and in 1900 there were 937. The second Czechoslovak census of 1930 reported 1,274 Jews http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0007_0_07001. html
I found an excellent and informative web site for this shtetl and the surrounding area, including photos and a map. Includes also, names of families living in and around the area - even their house location within the shtetl. If you can read Slovakian language, great, but if not there are several other choices at the top left of the home page including English. http://www.zeleznik.sk/Odkazy/holokaust.htm
Special Interest Group There are Regional Special Interest Groups that have Slovakia information and links. The site includes links to Bohemia-Moravia SIG, Denmark SIG, German-Jewish SIG, Hungary SIG and Stammbaum - German SIG http://www.jewishgen.org/Shtetlinks/W_Europe.html
Hanusovce nad Toplou - 80
Cemetery A Jewish cemetery exists in this town.
Hlohovec (Hung.Galgóc; Ger.Freistadtl, Freistadt; in popular SlovakFraštak)
A town in W. Slovakia, until 1992 Czechoslovak Republic, then Slovak Republic. The first Jews appeared in Hlohovec with the Romans. During the 9th-century Great Moravian Empire, Jews may have lived in the location of present Hlohovec. Since then, Germans who settled in the area bore hatred toward Jews, and in the 13thcentury Jews had to wear red markings on their clothes. After refusing to convert to Christianity, the Jews of the Hungarian kingdom were expelled in 1360. Before then, they could live in any part of the town. Upon their return four years after the expulsion, they were relegated to one "Jewish" street. In 1514 they were expelled again, during the peasant revolt. Hlohovec was located next to an important bridge over the river Váh; from the 15thto the 18thcentury, Jews collected the tax for crossing the bridge on behalf of the royal treasury http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0009_0_09072. html
Humenne - 350 (Humenné, Eperjes)
Located in eastern Slovakia and about 70 km (45 miles) east of Presov (formerly Eperjes) until 1992 Czechoslovak Republic, then Slovak Republic. Humenné is situated on the highway leading from Poland to wine-growing regions in eastern Hungary. Jewish tradesmen frequented this highway. The first record of Jewish presence in the town is from 1743. There were no guilds in Humenné, and nobody intervened in the activity of Jewish businessmen. Although the community was founded in 1809, theHevra Kadishaexisted from 1786, and the oldest tombstone dates from 1772. Humenné attracted Jewish settlers; in particular, an influx of Jews from Poland was evident in the 19thcentury. In 1830/35 there were 666 Jews in Humenné; in 1857 there were 1,020; and in 1880 there were 1,280. In 1910 the number reached 1,570 (34.8%). The first Czechoslovak census of 1921 reported 1,254; in 1930 there were 2,197. In 1940, on the eve of the deportations, 2,172 Jews lived in Humenné http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0009_0_09306. html
Cemetery A Jewish cemetery exists in this town.
Records Bobby Furst states that "I have digital photos of pages from birth, marriage, deaths from this town." These books have not been microfilmed by the LDS."
A village in N.E. Slovakia; until 1992 Czechoslovak Republic, since then Slovak Republic, seat of a famous yeshiva. It is located in the region of Spiš (Ger. Zips, Hg. Szepes), settled densely by Germans (Schwabes). The inhabitants were hostile to Jews and would not permit them to live in the region's towns. Huncovce, a village, served as a ghetto, where Jews would return in the evenings when the city gates closed. The first Jews must have settled in Huncovce in the 17thcentury, and there is evidence of their presence in the 18thcentury. The first rabbi, Benjamin Sinai, died in 1708. From the outset, Huncovce suffered from internal migration, so when *Liptovský Mikulašwas settled by Jews at the beginning of the 18thcentury, 22 families moved there from Huncovce. When Jews received freedom of settlement in Hungary in 1840, they moved to neighboring towns. This repeated itself after 1867, when Jews gained equality in the country. In the Czechoslovak Republic, migration spelled disaster to the community http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0009_0_09316. html
Evidence shows that there were Jews in Komárno in the Middle Ages, but modern Jewish settlement began only in the eighteenth century. Its fastest growth came with the rapid development of Komárno into an important urban center. In the space of 50 years the number of Jews almost tripled, from 849 (1850) to 2,296 (1900). After the 1869 congress that formally split Hungarian Jewry into three separate streams, the Komárno community joined the Neolog movement; a separate Orthodox community was established in 1880. The two communities used the same cemetery, which was split into two sections. Two community synagogues still stand today; the former Orthodox synagogue was integrated in the complex of a (non-Jewish) old age home. The Neolog Temple is used as a sport club. In 1941 there were 2,734 Jews in Komárno. They were deported to Auschwitz in 1944; only 248 survived.
There are fewer than 100 Jews living here today and the Jewish community life centers around the Menhaz complex - a former Jewish old age home that still has an active synagogue, community center and a small Jewish museum. The web site is not available at this time in English, but using Google Translate will translate it to other languages. http://www.menhaz.sk
Kosice - (German isKassau - Kassa in Hungarian, Kashau)
Population 235,000, it is the second largest city and the unofficial capital of eastern Slovakia. It is also home to the country's second largest Jewish community. Jewish records from Kosice, and a number of other towns in eastern Slovakia, have been filmed by the Mormons and are available at the FHC (Family History Centers). A web site that allows the posting of your surnames and villages of interest on the internet is http://www.iarelative.com/search/index.html
The city of Košice features valuable grouping of Jewish monuments. This eastern Slovak city used to be prior to the Holocaust a center with several Jewish communities representing broad spectrum of Jewish religious streams. Communal buildings of former Hassidic, Orthodox, Neolog and Status Quo Ante congregations, some of them with original inventory, have been preserved until these days.
A Jewish family (Daniel and Magda Riemer) recently married their two daughters in this city of 250,000 located in the far eastern tip of Slovakia.
Synagogue The synagogue in Košice was designed by architect Lajos Kozma and is undergoing restoration after being used for decades as a book repository, a prayer room, a mikve and communal offices. It is located on Zvonarska Street near the city's main square. http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/134.html
The Jewish cemetery in Kowalewo Pomorskie was established about 1830. First Jews arrived to town in ’20 of 19th century. In 1882 a synagogue was built. During Word War II the cemetery was destroyed; today there are no fragments of Matzevot left. The area is partially built over. The cemetery is 0.09 ha.
Cemetery This cemetery is isolated suburban hillside cemetery has no sign or marker. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open to all with no wall or gate. 1-20 20th century tombstones are in original locations. Site is used for waste dump or abandoned [unclear]. Adjacent properties are agricultural. Private visitors stop rarely. Vegetation is a very serious threat disturbing stones. http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/slovakia/kurima.html
Ladomirová lies northeast of the road transit Svidník move north-south. With 800 inhabitants is the largest Ruthenian village in the district. It was, for centuries, part of the Makovicky castle estate. The first written mention is from r.1364. In the 15th Century. A toll house on the trade route from Hungary to Poland was established.
Ladomirova was well known by its great market places. During that period, there were a number of Jewish communities in which a lot of merchants were doing business not only from the Austro-Hungarian monarchy but also Jewish tradesmen from the territory of Poland. Ladomirova. There is a military cemetery with a chapel here from the 1st World War, where over 200 Romanian, Russian and German soldiers were buried. The currently neglected / Jewish cemetery on the small hill called Kytkanya where Jewish citizens in the past from all sub-Dukla region had been buried.
Foundation for the renewal and maintenance of Jewish cemeteries Ladomirová Ing. Michael Church / mayor / Foundation, which aims to:
Restoration and management of the Jewish cemetery in the village Ladomirová and its use in a network of cultural heritage of the region,
An information database of Jewish citizens buried in the cemetery, but also about other people lived and their descendants from our poddukelkého living in our region and in the world
The establishment of contact centers for those interested not only in Slovakia, but from around the world in more information research issues
Concentration exhibits and photographic documentation for the establishment of the memorial room. The long term goal is to establish a museum of Jewish culture poddukelského region in our community,
Support non-profit organizations, individuals knowledgeable professional, but especially the students involved in the study, research and publication activities in matters of Jewish culture in the Carpathian region
Members of the Council: Dr. And Dr. Jan Rodak. Joseph Choma - historians / seminary and PR /, and Vasil Gajdula Ducarova Renata - professors of Angličtina / translation / owl Eliash and Janochko Mikulash - priests of the Orthodox and Uniate churches, Patlevich Jaroslav, Eng. Michael Kost - management activities of the Foundation, Dr.. Friga Miroslav - lawyer, The above was written: Mgr. Vlasta Lazov Eng. Michael Kost Translated: Vasil Gajdula and revised slightly by the Webmaster.
Ladmovce is located in Slovakia just over the Hungarian border, 3.5 km N of Satoralijauijhely, Hungary and 50 km ESE of Kosice, Slovakia, 215.2 miles E of Bratislava. The cemetery is located at the end of the town on flat land. When entering from the south, it is on the right hand side. Town population is about 500 with no known Jewish population.
Historically, this town served as the seat of Liptov County, where for more than 200 years Jews were well respected and socially integrated. The Jewish community began to develop in the 18th century, reaching 1,115 people, or nearly 40 per cent of the total population, in 1880. In 1865 the town, then known as Liptovský Svätý Mikuláš, became the first town in Hungary to elect a Jewish mayor – Isaac Diner. This was two years before Jews acquired civil rights in the country. Three more Jews followed in this office, which is a sign of religious and cultural tolerance in the city. The Jewish community belonged to the Neolog stream and before the Second World War numbered about a thousand people. There is no Jewish community in the city anymore. The Jewish cemetery disappeared in the 1980s, when it was expropriated by the municipality; the gravestones were stolen.
Over the decades, the Magnes acquired a host of small archival collections documenting the activities of individuals, families and organizations in the Global Jewish Diaspora, with a focus on Europe and the United States. Among the highlights of these collections are the Simon Belkin papers and photographs on the assistance provided to Jewish refugees in Eastern Europe after the First World War, the records of the Jewish community of Liptovsky Mikulas, correspondence of Samuel David Luzzatto and his son and editor Isaia Luzzatto, Rabbi Baruch Braunstein's collection on the Inquisition in Majorca, and several collections of primary sources documenting the Holocaust, including Prof. Koppel Pinson's scrapbooks from the Offenbach Archival Depot http://www.magnes.org/collections/archives/global-jewish-diaspora
Only 80 to 100 of the town's 2,200 Jews survived WW II. Today, only 14 are left, according to Gertruda Sternlichtova, head of the Lucenec Jewish Community. A more detailed story about the attempt to rebuild this synagogue is written as a news article in the American Jewish World of June 21, 2002. Email email@example.comLucenec (new) is located in Lucenec, west of Rimavska Sobota.
Jews settled in the Lucenec area in the late 1700's. The first synagogue was built in 1863. By 1900, the Jewish population was about 2,000 out of a total population of 9,000. In 1941, the Jewish population was about 2,100. When the area was annexed to Hungary in November, 1938, many Jews were sent to forced labor camps. In May, 1944, when the Germans took control, a ghetto was formed under a Judenrat. All remaining Jews were deported to Auschwitz in June, 1944. http://www.edwardvictor.com/2005/Lucenec.htm
Synagogue There is just one synagogue left in this town which once had five. The remaining synagogue has an interesting history. It was built by Hungarian architect Lipot Baumhorn (1860-1932) whose other structures grace Amsterdam, Brussels and Tel-Aviv. Other than its foundations and a recently added copper roof, the synagogue is in poor condition. Built in 1924-1925, the synagogue housed religious services until 1944, when the Jews of Lucenec were transported to Nazi concentration camps in Polandand Germany. http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/134.html
Slovakian Jews were the first to be murdered in Majdanek and Auschwitz-Birkenau. The “Working Group” in Slovakia – a semi-underground group of Jews, under the leadership of Gisi Fleischmann and Rabbi Michael Dov Weissmandel– sought to save Jews, both from Slovakia and other countries, by paying ransoms for them. Their attempts succeeded only to a very small degree.
Malacky is the center of the Záhorie region in western Slovakia. Jews settled here in the nineteenth century, and their number reached its peak in 1880, when the town had 397 Jewish residents. When the Slovakian state was established on March 14, 1939, there were 300 Jews in Malacky. This little town is north of Bratislava.
Synagogue The synagogue, designed by architect Wilhelm Stiassny in once fashionable Moorish style. He also designed synagogues in Vrbové and Prešov. The unique exterior design has made the synagogue, which was built in 1900, a major tourist attraction, although it is now used as an art school. http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/134.html
Cemetery There are several smaller Jewish cemeteries in villages near Medzilaborce according to Mgr. Jan Hlavinka of The Museum of The Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica. There are cemeteries in Certizne, Krasny Brod, Vyrava. He has photos of the Jewish cemetery in Certizne and intends to take photos of other Jewish cemeteries in the future. http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/eastern-europe/index.html
Had a large Jewish community before 1942 before it was destroyed by the Nazis and their Slovak supporters. There are no Jews in the county today, but he is researching the history of this community and is looking for people who have their roots in Medzilaborce county. Scroll down a bit and you can read the site in English. Jan's phone no. +421 907 221 039 www.webpark.sk/jcmlproject
Located in eastern Slovakia, about 60 km (40 miles) due east of Kosice and 35 km west of Uzhgorod, Ukraineon Highway E50. Jews were named in the 1724 Census. Michalovce was a town in northeast Slovakia. In 1941, there were about 4,000 Jews in the town. In May, 1942, about 3,000 Jews were deported to the Lublin district of Poland. The remaining Jews were sent to western Slovakia in May, 1944. About 15% of the community survived. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0014_0_13831. html
Regional Special Interest Groups Has Slovakia information and links. Contact Rivka Nessim. The site includes links to Bohemia-Moravia SIG, Denmark SIG, German-Jewish SIG, Hungary SIG and Stammbaum - German SIG http://www.jewishgen.org/Shtetlinks/W_Europe.html
Population of 90,000. Slovak historians believe that Nitra is the location of the oldest Slovakian Jewish community. In 896 Hungarian tribes invaded the Panonian plain; in 906 they destroyed the Slavonic kingdom of Moravia and probably captured Nitra as well. One of these tribes may have been the*Khazarsof Jewish faith, which settled in the vicinity of Nitra. In a 1248 description of Nitra, "castrum iudeorum" can be interpreted as a Jewish settlement, in the vicinity of the neighboring village of Parovce. For centuries Parovce served as the Jewish extension of Nitra, where Jews were not admitted. In 1840, when the Budapest parliament allowed Jews to settle anywhere, the Jews of Parovce moved to Nitra. Many poor Jews who could not afford to move to Nitra stayed in Parovce. In 1989, with the collapse of Communism in Czechoslovakia, Parovce was inhabited by gypsies http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0015_0_14886. html
Synagogue The synagogue, built in 1911, designed by architect Leopold (Lipót) Baumhorn in a combination of art noveau, Byzantine and Moorish style. He also restored the synagogues in Liptovský Mikuláš. It has now been restored to serve as concert and exhibition hall. The second-floor women's gallery houses Slovakia's national Holocaust Memorial, called the Fate of Slovak Jews. It is located at Pri Synagogue 3, a narrow street in the town center http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/134.html
Nove Zamky(Slovak.Nové Zámky; Hung.Ersekújvár; Ger. Neuhaeusel)
A town in S. Slovakia, since 1993 the Slovak Republic. Until 1840, Jews were not permitted to live in Nove Zamky. They attended markets in the town and lived in nearby Surany (Nagysuran). In 1840, when the Hungarian Parliament passed the law permitting Jewish settlement, the first Jewish families moved there, where they traded in grain and horses. In 1855 the community numbered 85. In 1857 they founded aChevra Kadishaand in 1858 consecrated a cemetery. In 1860 the first synagogue was erected. Railway connections with Budapest and Vienna increased the economic importance of the town, and the Jewish population grew accordingly. In 1857 there were 892 Jews; in 1890 there were 1,491; and in 1910 there were 1,540. The first Czechoslovak census of 1921 recorded 2,087 Jews; the 1930 census recorded 2,535. On the eve of the deportations in 1940 there were 3,000 Jews in Nove Zamky http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0015_0_14937. html
Oborin - 12
Cemetery A Jewish cemetery exists in this town.
Palota (Nowotaniec, Nowotaniec Bieszczadzki; ד בנוביטַניץ' Novitanitz (Yiddish) Lebetanz (German)
It is located 194.0 miles SSE of Warszawa. Nowotaniec is a village in southeast Poland with a 2002 population of 430 in the Bukowsko Upland mountains, Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999) and previously in Krosno Voivodeship (1975-1998) and Sanok district, Bukowsko sub district, near the towns of Medzilaborce and Palota (in NE Slovakia). The first Jewish families appeared in Nowotaniec early in the 18th century. In 1765, 74 Jews lived in the village and were subordinate to the Rymanów Kahal although independence was given before 1777. 10-12 Jewish families were in village in four houses. In 1824, the Kahal had 84 members. In 1870, 249 Jews lived in a community that owned a synagogue and school with 22 pupils. In 1885, Yeshi Michal Gilernter, born in 1842 was appointed rabbi. In 1900, the Jewish community had 287 persons but no rabbi. In year 1921, 42 Jews remained. [June 2009] http://drs.library.yale.edu:8083/fedora/get/mssa:ms.1824/PDF
A town in Slovakia (part of Czechoslovakia 1918–1991; since then the Slovak Republic). In 1450 Jews were permitted to live in Pezinok, which was inhabited by Germans and Slovaks. In 1529 Counts Wolfang and George von Pezinok and St. George, who were heavily in debt to Jews, began to imprison local Jews. When the mutilated body of a young boy was found, it was deemed an act of Jewish ritual murder. The imprisoned Jews were tortured in the main square until they confessed to the murder and other crimes. On May 21, 1529, some 30 men, women, and children were burned at the stake. Only children under 10 were pardoned and were converted to Christianity. The pardon granted to the victims by Emperor FerdinandIreached them late. Jews were prohibited to live in Pezinok or even spend a night. In 1540 the Protestant reformerAndreas *Osianderpublished a booklet repudiating the Pezinok blood libels and incriminating the count who started it. The booklet was attacked by Johann Eck and repudiated byMartin *Luther http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0016_0_15680. html
Cemetery "The Jewish cemetery in Pezinok has a rather unfortunate history. After WWII, the property was privatized and currently serves as some gentleman's backyard. To be more exact, the original cemetery is divided into 3 sections, but only one section actually resembles a cemetery.
The story is rather convoluted, but in a nutshell, this is it: When our rep arrived there he was greeted by a sorry sight; the lion's share of the visible tombstones were piled atop each other and stacked in various areas of the cemetery. Further inquiries revealed that unfortunately, most of the tombstones from the other 2 sections had been relocated to this section in a rather haphazard manner. The other two parts of the backyard were beautifully landscaped and, of course, bereft of headstones."
"To their credit, the owner and his wife were very reasonable and accommodating, and after some negotiating, it was agreed that backyard #1 will be cleaned thoroughly and all the tombstones re-cemented and erected. They also agreed to allow several tombstones to be erected in in the other two backyards. Of course, it would then be necessary to erect a monument commemorating the deceased Jews of Pezinok (and those deported in WWII) and more importantly, to inform visitors of the situation, stating that the accuracy of the headstone positions cannot be guaranteed."
"The restoration project of the Pezinok cemetery was launched a couple of weeks ago. Our Hungarian rep Mr. Szabo, and his entire staff, outdid themselves; he and his crew of devoted laborers toiled for days to try and match the hundreds of puzzle-like fragments of the headstones and re-cement/re-erect them in a most orderly fashion."
"It is emblematic of the significance of this sacred work that the surrounding neighbors were so impressed with the sudden attention and concern towards our ancestors' resting place, that a couple of amiable fellows actually approached the HFPJC members and informed them that since these "stones" are apparently of great importance to him, they know of several more that are concentrated in some obscure spot hitherto unknown to us! Of course, they led him to the place, and "those stones" will be rightfully erected in the cemetery."
"All the same, there is still much work to be done. However, all our attempts at determining the precise locations of the gravestones were futile. If somebody out there has any information which might be helpful, or perhaps an old photograph of the cemetery, we'd be extremely grateful if you could contact us via Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or telephone (800-945-1552)." From a posting by Toby Mendlowitz Assistant Director HFPJC Brooklyn, NY
Population 88,000 with only a few dozen Jews living here now. It is near Kosice and has a magnificent Orthodox synagogue built in 1897. I have a list of the Presov Jewish Community, who died in the Shoah, given to me by the daughter of a past Presov rabbi. Source: John Froebel-Parker;email@example.com
Synagogue The synagogue, designed by architect Wilhelm Stiassny in once fashionable Moorish style. He also designed synagogues in Malacky and Vrbové. There is a Holocaust Memorial in the courtyard http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/134.html
Located in what is now Slovakia since about the 10th century. Before WWI, it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This is the German name for Bratislava, the capitol city of the Slovak Republic.
Located here. "I believe" that this yeshiva might have been the same one founded by Rabbi Moshe SOFER (SCHREIBER)(1762-1839). When the rabbinate of Pressburg became vacant in 1806, he was called to become chief rabbi and he founded the world's largest rabbinical school." From a posting by Pamela Weisberger
Jews were barred from living in Šamorín until the nineteenth century. Instead, they resided in nearby Mliečno and commuted to Šamorín for business. They gradually moved to Šamorín after an organized Jewish community was established here in the 1860s. In 1912, the Jewish community built a new synagogue on the eastern outskirts of town. The Šamorín community had 318 members in 1930 but was devastated during the Holocaust. No Jews live in Šamorín today
Synagogue Šamorín' s former synagogue stands at the heart of a traditional architectural setting that also comprises a former Jewish school and other Jewish communal buildings. The Jewish cemetery is located nearby http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/147.html
Šahy, today on the border between Slovakia and Hungary, is located in the former Hont County, which for centuries was a mining region closed to Jewish settlement. The development of a Jewish community here began after 1840, when the legal obstacles to Jewish presence were rescinded. The Jewish community grew quickly, and during the decades before the Holocaust Jews formed about 15 per cent of the total population. Jews owned most local small businesses, including the Neumann printing house, the oldest in the town. It is located on the Slovak-Hungarian border http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/sahy-status-quo-synagogue.html
Holocaust The local history museum has a plaque listing the names of more than 900 local Holocaust victims.
Synagogue The Orthodox synagogue was bult in 1852 and is located on Bela Bartok Square near the center of the town. It has been restored and is now a contemporary arts center
Samorin (Somorja, Sommerein)
"Saving What Remains: A Holocaust Survivor's Journey Home to Reclaim Her Ancestry" Authored by Livia Bitton-Jackson, a story of her return in 1980 to her childhood town. She was no ordinary tourist. Thirty-six years earlier, as a thirteen-year-old girl in what was then the Hungarian town of Somorja, she and her family had been deported to Auschwitz
The capital of Zemplen megye, which stretched into Slovakia. Some records for places now in Slovakia re in the archives in Satoraljaujhely.
Secovce - 303
Cemetery A Jewish cemetery exists in this town.
Sena - 10
Cemetery A Jewish cemetery exists in this town.
The Jewish community of Sereď was one of the oldest in western Slovakia and traced its origin to refugees fleeing Uherský Brod after a pogrom in 1683. The community reached its peak during the nineteenth century, when it joined the Orthodox movement. It was one of the largest Jewishcommunities in the region: In 1880, some 1,354 Jews made up about 27 % of the town's entire population of 5,004. Local Jews were active in business and they also owned the local sugar refinery. During World War II one of the three labor camps set up for Jews in Slovakia was established here. Internment at the camp saved about 500 Slovak Jews from deportation. The camp was also, however, used as a transit center for Jews being sent to death camps in 1942 and 1944-1945. The last deportation left for Terezín in March 1945
Cemetery A Jewish cemetery exists in this town. It is located on Kollarova Street at the eastern outskirts of town. Partially ruined, the cemetery history is included in the local high school's curriculum, and students voluntarily cleaned up the grounds and erected an information panel as well as a memorial plaque commemorating the deaths of the children who had studied at this school and murdered by the Nazis. http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/Holocaust/0026_SpisskaNova.htm
The town lies in the shadow of the hilltop ruins of Spis Castle and is located NE of Spisska Nova Ves. Spišské Podhradie once had a mixed population of Slovaks, Germans and Jews. Jews settled here only after a ban on their residence was lifted in 1840. The town became a rabbinical center, and its Jewish population grew from 219 in 1869 to 458 in 1940. The community, which adhered to the Orthodox stream, maintained a yeshiva and other institutions. Today, no Jews live here http://www.judaica.cz/NavBar1.asp?V1=78
Cemetery The cemetery walls have been restored according to Barbara Kaufman firstname.lastname@example.orgShe further states that there is a list of the gravestones on the JewishGen's Hungary SIG and that she has pictures of most of the stones. www.jewishgen.org/Hungary/
Synagogue Stefanikova 78 Only the synagogue in town center and the neglected Jewish cemetery, about 3 kilometers outside of town to the north, bear witness to the Jewish past. The synagogue has been undergoing a restoration process for years. The building is already used for cultural purposes, and there are plans to install a new permanent exhibition in the women’s gallery as a branch of the Museum of Jewish Culture in Bratislava. The simple building was constructed around 1875 and restored after a fire in 1905-1906. It is a typical example of nineteenth century provincial synagogue architecture, with its eastern façade oriented to the street and accentuated by four polygonal pillars with massive stone balls. The interior has been relatively well preserved; the women’s gallery is supported by cast iron columns, and the original ark (Aron haKodesh) is still in place. The splendid decorations are currently being restored http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/spisske-podhradie-synagogue.html
Lies on the banks of the Ondava river, in northeastern Slovakia, near where the Polish and Russian borders meet. It is located about 50 km (30 miles) north northeast of Presov (formerly Eperjes). It is also located on highway 557 12 km (8 miles) southeast of the town of Svidnik. Jews first arrived about 1640. http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/Stropkov1/Stropkov.html
Cemetery A Jewish cemetery exists in this town. The Stropkov cemetery is open to all via a fence with an unlocked gate. 250 meters from the main road (which goes to Vraanov), the cemetery is 140x28-30 meters. 100-500 tombstones date from 1900-1942, some in original locations but many fallen. They lay from N to S with the inscriptions at the W side. Of the marble, granite, and sandstone flat shaped and finely smoothed tombstones, many are illegible, worn completely smooth. Most sandstone monuments are flaking into layers, disintegrating and falling off. Those that can be read are in Hebrew without surnames. Some show ornamental leaves and vines. One ohel (Zborover Rebbe, R. Yitzhak Hersh Amsel) is in bad repair in the W section, deep within the under - and overgrowth. Vegetation, growing unchecked, damages tombstones. An open well exists within the cemetery, probably once a Beit tahara. Private visitors arrive occasionally. There is no regular caretaker. The property belongs to the Municipality of Stropkov, 38 Hlavna Street, Stropkov. The city architect, Marko Vateha, is a willing guide and very knowledgeable about both the cemetery and the town. http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/slovakia/stropkov.html
Records Bobby Furst states that "I have digital photos of pages from birth, marriage, deaths from this town." These books have not been microfilmed by the LDS."
Yizkor Book "Sefer Zichron Stropkov" "Between Galicia and Hungary: The Jews of Stropkov"(and her nearby Villages) Authored by Melody Amsel. This is a memorable book about the Amsel family of Stropkov and, in addition, all of the Jews of Stropkov. It is written in both English and Hebrew. It lists all of the Jews of Stropkov and neighboring communities, identifying the survivors in bold face. There are over 100 photos. Of the more than 2,000 Stropkovers identified, only 162 survived the Holocaust. Available through my link to Amazon.com http://www.yatedo.com/s/birthplace%3A (Stropkov)
Located in this town are one of only two synagogues built in a nine-bay synagogue around a central Bima that supports the vaulted ceiling and has been preserved in this town. It is Slovakia's oldest synagogue, built in 1803 and stands just off the main road near the center of the town. The synagogue building was purchased by a Bratislava Jewish businessman, Tomas Stern in 2006, when it was in ruin, and since then he has spent his money and time to slowly restore it as a cultural center http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/134.html
Trencin (SlovakTrenčín; Hung.Trencsén; Ger.Trentschin), town in western Slovakia)
In the 14thcentury there were several Jews in Trencin. In the 16thcentury Jews reappeared. After the Kuruc invasion of Ubersky Brod in 1683, some Jews took refuge in Trencin. For the next 100 years, the community was under Ubersky Brod's jurisdiction. In 1734 the Jews took a secret oath to use only Ubersky Brod's court in disputes and to avoid the Hungarian court system - Population 57,000. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0020_0_20024. html
Synagogue An art nouveau domed synagogue is located in this town and is a city landmark. It is currently a municipal art gallery. It was built in 1913 and is still used by the handful of Jews living in the area. http://www.slovak-jewish-heritage.org/134.html
Cemetery The mass grave of 140 victims of Nazi crimes against humanity is located here. The cemetery has tombstones in Hebrew, German, Hungarian and Slovak and is a memorial to the Jewish community in Zvolen. More than 550 Jews lived in Zvolen in 1940. There are only a few Jewish residents here today, and they are members of the Jewish community of Banská Bystrica. The building of Zvolen' s former synagogue, at Jána Kozáčeka Street 10, serves as shop and office premises. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/slovakia.html