Thirty-eight. five million people live in Poland, an area slightly smaller than the state of New Mexico. The population density is about 328 people per square mile, as compared to only 15 people in New Mexico.
Between about 1800 and WW i, there was no Poland. It was partitioned between Russia, Prussia, and Austria. There was a Kingdom of Poland which was part of Russia in the 1840-1900 period.
is what once was
Eastern (or Farther) Pomerania,
from 1653 until 1945.
from the Hapsburg Empire in 1742, and almost all of
until 1945 as well. The
had belonged to
since the 13th Century."
as defined after WWI (when
a new Poland was created from pieces of the Russian, German and
corresponds mostly to what had been the Grand Duchy/province of
There are vital records,
and otherwise, from all of these places, from many different
periods and in various languages."
From a posting by
During the late 18th century, Poland was overtaken and was partitioned among the nations of Russia, Prussia and Austria. It regained its independence in 1918, but 21 years later, WWII was initiated by Germany and Russia dividing the country between them. The Germans took over the western part and the Soviets controlling the eastern. Poland became a free democratic and independent nation in 1989, when the Wall fell.
Education is a priority in Poland and Warsaw holds the distinction of opening the world's first public library in 1747. About 91,000 scientists reside in Poland which has a literacy rate of 99.8%.
More than six million Polish citizens lost their lives in WWII, the highest percentage of any of the countries involved in the war. Half of this number were Jews. Auschwitz, the former Nazi concentration camp, is now a museum and memorial visited by over half a million people each year.
Poland was home to the largest Jewish population in Europe and served as the centre for Jewish culture. A diverse population of Jews from all over Europe sought refuge in Poland, contributing to a wide variety of religious and cultural groups. Before WW II, more than 3.3 million Jews lived in Poland, the second largest Jewish community in the world.
The Jewish presence in Poland goes back a very long time. Even before the Union with Lithuania in 1386, there was promulgated a Statue of Jewish Liberties at Kalisz in 1264.
Poland, Polonia, Polska has two Hebrew names, which read like a Midrash wherefrom the name drives:
1. Po lan jah = "Here is God living (lodging)" or: 2. Po lin = "Do live here!" or: "you may live here"
Is it then a wonder that this country became the homeland of the majority of the Jews for many hundreds of years (before USA and Israel)? Posted by Ruben Frankenstein on JewishGen
Before World War II, Polandhad a vibrant Jewish community of 3.5 million - 10% of the country's population -- but most were killed in the Holocaust. It was the second largest Jewish community in the world. Only 10% survived! Many of those who returned following the war, fled again after pogroms and the official anti-Jewish measures of 1968. Today, it is estimated that there are between 5,000 to 20,000 Jews living in Poland.
From the following web page links, specifically linked to Polish Jewish genealogical informational sites, you can unleash your passion for discovering your past. The marriage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Kingdom of Poland stretched almost to the Black Sea in the 16th and 17th centuries. From the early 1800s to 1815, France owned Poland as a result of Napoleon's army. Jews were in Poland for more than 1,000 years after they were encouraged to settle there by Polishkings, who offered protection from persecution in Western and Central Europe.
The uprising of Ukrainian Kazaks, and the peasantry, in the 17th century meant trouble for the over 300 Jewish communities. Thousand of Jews were murdered and communities destroyed in Poland, Volhynia, Moldavia and adjacent areas. The 17th century, by the way was called "Golden Age" in Poland. During this time, many foreigners found a new homeland in Poland including some Scots (in Polish Szkot) and Dutch known as Holendry. You can find some villages in Poland named Olendy and many people with the name Olendzki. It is the heritage of Dutchsettling in Poland.
In the Kingdom of Poland (aka Congress Poland or Russian Poland) Jews were listed in separate registers from 1826. Beginning around 1808 vital records for Jews were included in Roman Catholic Civil Registers. Jews were not included in church parish registers. Poland ceased to exist as the political entity at the end of the 18th century, and reestablished again in 1918. Lands of The Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth has been divided (in three sequences) by the three Empires: Austria, Prussia and Russia. Usually when Poland is used before 1919, it refers to Russian Poland. Actually, Polanddid not exist from 1795 until 1918.
The problem with finding records in Poland is that the country has had many turmoils and not a lot of documents have survived. Those records that did survive, generally cover the years 1808 to 1865, and have been microfilmed by the Mormons. A set of LDS microfilms, covering Poland, is at the Douglas Goldman Genealogy Center(formerly DOROT) at the Diaspora Museum in
It was noted in a discussion between Doug Cohen and Gayle Schlissel in 2002 in a posting that "Polish documents are kept at the local town hall for 100 years, then transferred to the regional archives site." Gayle states: "not always. In the Tarnobrzeg USC you will find birth records for 1889 up until 1935 ... and I found a death register held in private hands for 1903-1928, now on my ShtetLinks web site. So maybe they can be found elsewhere do not give up hope try everything you may get lucky. "During the 1930s, keep in mind in your research, that all of western Ukraine was either located in Poland and/or Czechoslovakia.
After Poland-Lithuania no longer existed as an independent state, its inhabitants (Lithuanians, Poles, Jews, gypsies, etc.) automatically became subjects of whatever ruler whose government controlled the area where they lived. No naturalization was necessary.
Those calling themselves Russian Polish subjects were Russian subjects of Polish ancestry. People born in Prussian - or Austrian-controlled Poland would similarly have been called Prussian (Polish) or Austrian (Polish) subjects. Boundary shifts also occurred because of the Napoleonic Wars, Polish and Lithuanian uprisings, internal government policies, and WW1 and WW2.
In the 1930s as the shadow of history was lengthening over the Jews of Europe, several thousand Polish Jews managed to emigrate to what was then British Mandate Palestine.
The 'Passports' collection in the Archives of the Jewish Historical Institute of Poland (Warsaw) consists of 3,754 Polish passportsissued primarily during the 1930s to Polish citizens going to what was then British Mandate Palestine.
The data in this passport file has been added to the Jewish Records Indexing-Poland database and is searchable by surname. This is the first information to be added to the JRI-Poland database that is not based on a town or other geographical area.
Therefore, if you want to search for a particular surname from the Passport File, you must search the entire JRI-Poland database (All Guberniyas/All Provinces). If you limit your search to a Guberniya, Province, Town, or distance from particular geographic coordinates, you will not be able to retrieve the Passport File information for your surname.
Because of 100-year Polish privacy laws, the JRI-Poland on-line index will only contain the basic information for each individual. Researchers with an interest in passports that may be for family members must identify themselves as relatives when requesting copies of the passports from the Ronald S. Lauder Foundation Genealogy Project at the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.
Copies of these records may be ordered from the Jewish Historical Institute. Refer to the order form.
There are more than 2600 different surnames represented in the Passports.
JRI-Poland had developed a list of all Surnames in the Polish Passports file, correlating each surname to the towns of birth and residence associated with that Surname in the file. Checking this Surname/Town list may refresh your memory about the names of family members you may have forgotten and for whom you can now search. The surname list may be found at
If you find a surname of interest, you can enter it and choose "precise spelling" but remember to search the entire database to get the JHI Passport Data among your search results. Judy Baston, Coordinator, JRI-Poland Aliyah Passport Project
The above was posted to the JewishGen Discussion Group by Judy Baston
"One response to the search for older Polish town names is to look at the 18th century place names and their corresponding 19th and 20th century place names on our list at the Jewish Family History-Grand Duchy of Lithuania website, under 18th century districts and alphabetical list of Kahals. This list is incomplete. As we translate and transliterate more GDL lists (which include all of Lithuania and Belarus, as well as western Poland and Northern Ukraine) which you can find at
Return to this website and the lists frequently since we are in the process of using volunteers and professional translators to identify 18th c places and their 19th c equivalent names.
If you are able to transliterate Old Polish names (which are written in Latin letters), and wish to volunteer for a specific area, please contact us. Also you may be able to help organize a group of researchers with your common interest to help in this process." From a posting by David Hoffman Jewish Family History Foundation Grand Duchy Project on JRI-Poland forum
Procedure to ordering documents from JRI-Poland / AGAD
Follow the link to create the order form including the mailing address. Cost is approximately $11 per record as last reported.
In 1939, at the start of WW II, there were 3,300,000 Jews existing in Poland, (roughly 10% of the population) but after the war, most survivors refused to return to or remain in Polandfor various reasons, but mostly because of anti-Semitic outrages. Jews made up about one-third of the population of cities in central Poland. They made up about 50%, and in some cases even 70% of the population of smaller towns, especially in Eastern Poland.
Today there are about 8,000 out of a total population of over 38,600,000.
Poland was the first country to oppose Hitler's demands and the first to stand against his aggression. Poland never had a Quisling. No Polish regiment fought on behalf of Germany. Betrayed by the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact, Poles fought alongside the anti-Nazi forces from the first day until the last. And inside Poland, armed resistance to the German occupation was widespread. While under occupation, Polish nationalists and anti-Semitic right didn't collaborate with the Nazis, as the right wing did elsewhere in Europe, but actively participated in the anti-Hitler underground. Polish anti-Semites fought against Hitler, and some of them even rescued Jews, though this was punishable by death. Here we have a singularly Polish paradox; on occupied
Polish soil a person could be an anti-Semite, a hero of the resistance and a savior of Jews. Ironic?
In accordance with the
Ribbentrop-Molotov pact, the Soviets occupied a large part of
eastern Poland, as well as the Baltic countries.
Bessarabia and part of Finland, areas that were held
until the German invasion of those areas in 1941.
More than 130,000 residents of eastern Poland - both Jews
and non-Jews alike - were deported to locations within the
Soviet Union and were not living in Poland when the
Germans invaded the country. The names of the deportees
and information on their fates where known, have been collected
by Karta and is in their books and on Karta's
website which is in Polish but Google will translate the site
for free. http://www.karta.org.pl/
Aninventory of surviving Jewish Vital Records of Poland records
www.jewishgen.org/jri-pl Many researchers have the belief that Jewish records in the old country were destroyed. The JRI (Jewish Records Indexing-Poland is proving that this is not the fact as they have already indexed over 2,00,000 Jewish Vital records.
There are two main sources for the available records, the microfilm archives of the Family History Center of the Church of Latter Day Saints (LDS or Mormons) and the non-microfilmed records of the Poland State Archives (PSA).
Records from 1810 to 1865 - and in some cases beyond - have been microfilmed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons) and you can view them in LDS Family History centers worldwide. JRI-Poland is indexing these records for 280 out of 500 towns in the Kingdom of Poland, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova. The records exist from 1808 to 1942 and were in Polish or Russian-Cyrillic, depending on the year. The only records that are available to be indexed are over 100 years old, due to Polish privacy laws.
The LDS records include 2,200 microfilms containing over 3 million Jewish vital records of more than 400 Polish cities and towns. These are almost all indexed, and the microfilms can be ordered from Salt Lake City for viewing at your local Family History Center. In addition, there are about 5 million records in the Polish State Archives. These records are being indexed as the money to pay for the indexing is raised.
Original Inquiry: "I have a few comments to add to the discussion regarding the subject of early 19th century Jewish records in Poland:
1) Civil registration in most parts of Poland began in 1808. Until 1825, *All* records (including Jewish) were kept in Catholic parish registers. Parishes often covered large areas & could include a dozen or more towns. These registers are relatively easy to use as they had four columns on each page: royalty, peasants, merchants and Jews (Zydzi). If it was a Jewish vital record, then the Zydzi column would be marked with a sequential number and the name of the town." From a posting by Randy Stehle
"Of course Randy was referring to the area of 'Russian Poland', not Austrian 'Galician Poland' where the situation was much different - no Jewish records have been found in Catholic records, separate Jewish records with surnames exist back to at least 1790 for many towns, almost no LDS microfilms and most early records stuck in Lvov Archive in Ukraine, later records in Warsaw AGAD Archive, records in column 'fill in the blank' forms in German or Polish, no Russian or Hebrew (except occasional signatures). I just wanted to clarify that in the 19th century there was
no independent nation of Poland, so discussing "19th century Polish records" can include more than Congress, or Russian Poland." Posted by Mark Jacobson
Click on "Family History Library Catalogue" and search by town name or keyword.
If you find a microfilm of your town, check to see if your local Mormon Family History Center has it. If not, it can be ordered for a small fee.
Keep in mind that in many towns, Jewish vital records occurring until 1825 were recorded in Catholic Church Registers, but can easily be researched. Most of these metrical books had alphabetical indexes of all the surnames, with four columns: Christian male/female, Jewish male/female, with an associated Akt. (record) number.
You can easily* find the appropriate page and copy the record. You can also tell which records are for Jews because there is Hebrew written at the bottom, exciting because you will be seeing the actual signature of your relative as they were required to sign these records--as opposed to those down in columnar format.
If a town is not represented on the Jewish Gen list (URL given above), they caution that you do not assume there are no Jewish records for the town. What is shown below is a listing of only those records classified as "Jewish Records". It is possible that the town of interest has church records, land records, or civil registrations that include information about the Jews of the town. Microfilms on this list with a * are Catholic Parish Register microfilms which have been determined to include Jewish records, but is not a complete list of such Catholic Parish Registers. If you discover more Jewish records in any other type of record, they ask that you let JRI-Poland or JewishGen know so they can add to this list.
Also keep in mind that Poland adopted the Gregorian Calendar (the one we use today) in 1582 while the Russian Empire, which kept the Julian Calendar until 1918. In many later "Polish" records the a birth date was listed both ways (often occurring in two different months) and, depending on the year, there was about a two week difference between the two calendars. Another reason why our ancestors, in coming to this country, were confused about exactly when they were born -- and often chose to orient their date of birth to how close it was to a Jewish holiday!"
From a posting by Pamela Weisberger
* "Easy" is relative, of course. Bring a Polish-English translation guide or Judith Frazin's book: "A Translation Guide to 19th-Century Polish-Language Civil-Registration Documents (Birth, Marriage and Death Records)," (which many genealogical libraries will have) and don't give up at first. It becomes easier over time until you swear you can read Polish!
In order to locate the name of your ancestral town, you first need to go to the "Routes to Routes" website
If you search the database using the Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex search, you will find the correct name for your ancestral town. You can also review my Polish Shtetls page.
you should click on "Your Town" and search the alphabetical list for your town's name. The town's listing will provide you with a link to a map, a list of surnames in that town and a list of available records. Andy indexing that is complete is indicated. You can also search by surname using Soundex, and you can limit the search by Guberniya, province or town. The previous information was obtained from the Winter 2003 issue of The Gatherers - a publication of the JGS of Northern New Jersey.
Altogether, the JRI-Poland reports that they have indexed more than 1.8 million records. The goal is to create a searchable on-line database of the indices of all 19th century Jewish records from current and former territories of Poland. When all of these indices are on-line, researchers will then be able to quickly find the records for their families and - using an on-line order form -- send for copies of records from branches of the Polish State Archives.
To obtain genealogical information about your family, you need to contact, at the minimum, three locations.
1. Check the Mormon Family History Library (FHL) to see if they have microfilmed the vital (birth and death) and marriage records.
2. If the FHL has nothing, then you need to contact the archives in Poland (for older records) and the registry of the town (for more recent records). A Registry Office is called Urzad Stanu Cywilnego
Ordering Records from Polish State Archives
All Archives and branches where Jewish vital records have been indexed and are included in the "Shopping Basket" order processing system. Records available through the Shopping basket System are only those indexed as part of the JRI-Poland/PSA Project. Records indexed from LDS Microfilms or other sources are NOT included in the Shopping Basket System. For questions about the Order Processing System:
PSA Archive Branches Using the System
Each record ordered will cost the researcher $10. However, there is a minimum charge per branch of $15.00. Therefore, if you order one record from Lodz and one from Pultusk, the total charge will be $30.00
Additional links and information may be found at my
Galicia web page.
Autonomous Kehilot in Second Polish Republic
(was: Children assuming the mother's surname)
On 19 Nov. 102010,
Suzan Wynne wrote:
"The civil marriage laws apparently continued
in the territory
that had been
until Jewish record keeping ceased in 1942-3. In fact, the
Jewish self governing structure that existed under
continued on in some fashion [...] after
became independent between the wars. It is not clear to me why
thought it advantageous to continue this system, particularly
because the system only pertained to the
part of Poland that had been
from 1772-1918. Perhaps someone who is able to read
and is familiar with post WWI
could enlighten us about why the
maintained this system. I have read that, officially,
the Kehilla ceased to exist in about 1927 due to
internal dissension and it's terrible financial state. And
yet, clearly remnants continued on.">>
"Hello Susan and everyone else who is interested,
I am glad I can provide some info as this falls right into my
field of historical (as
opposed to genealogical)
To start with, concerning the institution of autonomous (financially,
administratively and religiously)
Jewish Kehilot it is
that continued something that the
but the other way around. The autonomous Kehilot existed in the
and were abolished by the
respective occupying forces after the Partition. They were
but not in
German Occupied Poland.
autonomy since 1875, there was no problem for either the
Jews or the
included 3 articles pertaining to national minorities rights,
namely articles 109, 110, and 115. Article 109 stipulated that
"Special statutes of the state will guarantee to minorities
[...] the full and free development of their national
characteristics;" article 110
belonging to national minorities
have the same rights as any other
supervise and administer, at their own expense, any "charitable,
religious, and social institutions, schools and other
educational institutions, and of using freely therein their
language, and observing the rules of their religion;"
and article 115 stated that
churches of the religious minorities and other legally
organized religious communities govern themselves
by their own laws, which the state may not refuse to recognize
they contain rules contrary to law."
(The 1921 Constitution Of
The Republic Of Poland, available from
It is important to know that in the Sejm of 1922
the Jews were, in fact, represented by two
ideologically/politically opposed groups. The first was the
Minorities Bloc, a political party created for these elections
at the initiative of Yitshak Gruenbaum (from
the Central Poland Zionist Federation),
second was the Kolo Zydowskie, [literally:
National Jewish Representation in the Sejm and the Senat,"
by Leon Reich (Head
of the Zionist Federation of East Galicia),
and seconded by Osias Thon (from
the Zionist Federation of West Galicia).
It is also important to know that the three Jewish Federation
were separate administratively and ideologically mainly on the
most important issue of
Jewish policy in Poland
while we live in
Gruenbaum, representing the Central (formerly
Poland Zionist Federation,
hoped that a bloc of the
four major ethnic minorities, representing almost
one third of
the country's population, will hold the political balance in the
parliament and will force
to change from a "state
ethnic minorities into a state of several
The initiative was controversial among
Both Zionist Federations of
Galicia (East and West),
under the leadership of Ignacy (Yitshak)
Schwarzbart, rejected the initiative
and chose not to participate in this bloc when it
was created. The Bund and the PZL, of course, rejected it, too.
Ultimately, although presented as a victory by Gruenbaum and his
this very day),
the Minorities Bloc won only 20% of the seats of the Sejm
instead of the one third hoped for, all the other political
Parties represented were, to the least, wary of the Bloc and
was somewhat reluctant to be identified with it. On the other
hand, it were the
who won the majority in the Kolo Zydowskie.
In July 1924, the
Commission of National Minorities of the Polish Government
turned to debate on specifics concerning the rights of the
Jewish minority. Reich and Thon led, on behalf of the Kolo,
secret negotiations with Stanislaw Grabski, minister of Cult and
Education and Aleksander Skrzynski, the foreign minister. The
was signed on July 4, 1925, granting the
Polish Jewry "rights in the cultural and religious spheres"
such as the "democratic reorganization of Jewish communal bodies
authorization for such communal boards to conduct their affairs
in Hebrew or Yiddish" and the establishment of the Sabatowkas (Polish
State schools closed on Saturdays rather than on Sundays).
In conclusions for our particular thread:
1. Kehilot were autonomous bodies all over the
commonwealth and were abolished by the
occupying forces in their respective territories
2. Kehilot in
were re-instituted by the
3. The Kehilot were granted autonomy in the
Second Polish Republic
by the Constitution of 1921 nationwide, but this was not applied
Russian occupied Poland
until the Ugoda agreement of 1924. In
things simply continued as they have always been since
was granted to
in 1875. In a way, one might say that the Ugoda made formerly-Russian-Occupied
align itself along the east
Galician (i.e., the Historical Poland)
4. The autonomy of the Kehilot refers to the
elections of their bodies (as opposed to the formerly Russian
system where a or some representative was appointed by the
governor and not a body elected by the community); they were, as
all religious bodies in
including Catholic bodies, to be
auto-financed and not government financed.
5. Kehilot never ceased to exist until WWII --
internal dissensions did exist and were apparent in each
election to this democratically elected autonomous body but this
is nothing new -- you take two Jews and you have three opposing
political Jewish parties. Financial difficulties were both a
result of these internal political dissensions (how
should the money be distributed and for what purposes, and some
of the tax-payers refusing to pay their dues)
and of objective difficulties (some
of the tax-payers being unable to pay, general economic crisis).
In case the financial crisis was
too big, either the Kehila appealed to the US
Landsmanshaft for donations or (rarely)
it ceased its autonomous existence and became a branch of a
larger neighbouring Kehila.
6. As for the specific function of the "official
or authorized rabbi"
I have not researched this specific issue, but I would presume,
from the research I have done that it had a lot to do with (a)
the overall financial situation of each individual Kehila and,
mainly (b) the need of the Kehila for such rabbi. I presume that
in Kehilot where the majority belonged and voted Agudat Yisrael,
for example, there was no need for a budget line for a local
speaking rabbi, and those who absolutely wanted to officially
register their marriage went to the departmental or regional
one. It might be interesting to compare the results of the
internal elections of the Kehilot (details
are given in Pinkas Hakehilot)
and try and compare the results of these elections to the number
of vital records where children bear the name of the mother,
i.e., linking the result of the internal elections to the
apparent absence of local "authorized" rabbi. But this is a full
PhD in itself and I don't have time (nor
for it right now.
I hope this clarifies a bit the issue.
Bibliography and Further Readings for those
Rothschild Joseph, “Ethnic
Peripheries Versus Ethnic Cores: Jewish Political Strategies in
Quarterly, vol. 96, no. 4, Winter, 1981-1982
Melzer Emanuel, “Hashpa’ot
hakhevra hasovevet al hatzionout be Polin beyn shtey mikhamot
Influence of the
surrounding society on Zionism in Poland in the
World War I and II)”,
Massuah a Yearbook on the Holocaust and
Heroism, Tel Yitschak – Tel Aviv, vo. 16 April
Landa Moshe, “Mekoma
shel ha Ugoda mishnat 1925 bemasekhet hayakhasim ha hadadidyim
place of the Ugoda of 1925 in the Polish Jewish mutual relations)”,
in Zion: A quarterly of Research of Jewish History, no. 37, 1972
From a posting by
Rivka Schirman nee Moscisker Paris, France
"A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames From the Kingdom of Poland" Authored by Alexander Beider offers a compilation of more than 32,000 Jewish surnames with origins
Buy from Amazon.comBuy
"A Guide to Jewish Lodz. Warsaw:" Authored by Jerzy Malenczyk and published by the Jewish Information and Travel bureau 1994. Describes the history of the Jews of Lodz and offers brief biographical sketches of famous Jews from the community. Also offers four different self-guided walking tours with maps and illustrations.
"A Jewish Boyhood in Poland' Authored by Norman Salitz describes his life in Kolbuszowa
"American Jewish Yearbook, 5667, 1906-07" A list of 254 pogroms is included with the name of the town and the Guberniya where the pogrom took place, date of pogrom, general and Jewish population for the town, damage incurred by the Jews of the town, general remarks on the pogrom. The American Jewish Yearbook is published by the Jewish Publication Society. This is a good source for genealogical information. A copy of this Yearbook is located at Asher Library in Chicago, Illinois.
"And I Still See Their Faces" A book, like a family album of Jewish life in pre-war published by the Shalom Foundation.
"A Peek Into The Polish Past" Author Judith Samson and printed in the December, 2000 issue of SHEMOT and published by the Jewish Genealogy Society of Great Britain.
"A Tale of Two Survivors" Authored by Norman Salitz
"A Translation Guide to 19th Century Polish Language Civil Registration Documents" Authored by Judith Franzin. There is a sample document translation from this book on the JRI-Poland site.
"A Vanished World" Authored by Roman Vishniak offers a wonderful collection of old photographs.
"TheBlack Book of Polish Jewry: An Account of the Martyrdom of
Jewry Under the Nazi Occupation," Edited by Jacob Apenszlak
"Death in the Forest; The Story of the Katyn Forest Massacre" Authored by J. K. Zawodny in 1962 - the story of the Katyn Forest killings by the Soviets - not the Nazis as originally thought. http://abebooks.com/
"Do Not Go Gentle" A Memoir of Jewish Resistance in Poland, 1941-1945 by Charles Gelman and published in 1989 by Archon Book. ISBN 0-208-02230-9
"Encyklopedia.PL" Printed in Polish, contains a lot of information, if you can read the language http://Encyklopedia.PL
"Finding Your Roots In Galicia" Indicates that some 85% of rural Polish Jews were engaged in the liquor trade, according to author Suzan Wynne's book. And confirmed "In Economic Origins of Anti-Semitism" byHillel Levine, Yale University Press. But in 1910, Jews were forbidden to sell alcoholic beverages, so 15,000 suddenly lost their source of income and probably triggered the subsequent emigrations to the United Kingdom and the US.
"Geographic Dictionary of the Polish Kingdom and other Slavic
Countries" ("Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego Innych Krajow Slowianskich") edited by Bronislaw Chlebowski in Warsaw in 1892. A historical source on shtetls in Galicia.
"Ghetto Fighters' House" The story in photos and biographies of about 1,000 fighters and Jewish heroes during WWII including biographies and photos. Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum (Beit Lochamei Hagetaot) available on line. Click on the "Partisans Database" button on the left side of the page to access the data. http://www.gfh.org.il/english/
"Hidden Treasures in Polish Vital Records" Authoredby Lauren B. Eisenberg Davis offers hints on various tidbits of information that can be found in the vital records of the Kingdom of Poland.
"Hippocrene Insider's Guide to Poland's Jewish Heritage" Authored by Joram Kagan and published in New York by Hippocrene Books, Inc. in 1992.
"House of the World" A film that presents a portrait of Jewish Poland before and after WWII. The author and director is Esther Podemski. Contact the Discovery Channel for further information
"I am Drenched in the Dew Of My Childhood, A Memoir" Authored by Henry Lawrence Gitelman and published in Montreal, Canada in October 1997. Mr. Gitelman was born in Slawatycze and one of his sources for his book was the "Folks-Sztyme", a Polish-Yiddish publication from Warsaw.
"Image Before My Eyes" A photographic history of Jewish life in Poland from 1864 to 1939, authored by Lucjan Dobroszycki and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett. Published by Schocken Books in 1977
"In Their Words - A Genealogist's Translation Guide to Polish, German, Latin
and Documents" Authored by William Hoffman and Jonathan Shea, is an excellent resource. Ordering information at
"Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Armies in World War II"
History, names and burial places of the Jewish soldiers in the Polish armies, including those who fought in France. Authored by Benjamin Mertchak - a 5 volume set. Published by the Association of Jewish War Veterans of the Polish Armies in Israel, 158 Dizengoff, 63461 Tel Aviv - Phone 03 522 5078. For more information check out
While researching the Jewish presence in the "First Polish Armored Division", I came across a number of names of Polish Jewish soldiers killed in action in France and are mostly buried in the military cemetery in Langannerie, France. Perhaps these names have a meaning to somebody. The 60th anniversary of the Normandy landing was commemorated in June (2004) in many towns of Normandy. From a posting on JewishGen by Willie Glaser, Montreal, Quebec Canada
Biezuner, Szoel b. May 6, 1921 Zuromnia p.Sierpc Goldstaub, Gustaw b. May 10, 1922 Frankfurt a/M Germany Goldin, Michal b. August 8, 1922 Warszawa Hertz, Leon Ignacy b. February 12, 1911 Lodz Hirsz or Wilk, Wiktor, b. October 10, 1909 Hudes, Feliks b.December 15, 1921 Tyszowce p. Tomaszow Iglewicz, Lebj b. December 26, 1909 Bialystok Kneppel, Salo b. October 1, 1922 Berlin Germany Oberklajd, Izaak b. July 17, Kock p. Likow Simon, Henryk b. February 5, 1913 Warszawa Sirota, Igor Jerzy b. January 1, 1922 Rowne Strawczinski, Judka b.August 8, 1905 Kielce Trocki, Adolf b. March 24, 1915 Wilno Wajnkopf, Roman b. February 5, 1913 Mogielnica p. Grojec
Re: non-Persian Jews in Iran,
it might interest to know that there is a list of hundreds of
Polish Jewish soldiers who perished in the USSR, in Iran,
Iraq, Mandate Palestine, Egypt, Syria, Libya, Italy etc.
during World War II in the memoirs of Polish Army chaplain
Rabbi Pinkas Rosengarten.
The Hebrew original was entitled "Mi-Yomano shel Rav Tzevai";
the Polish version -- of which we have a copy -- is Zapiski
Rabina Wojsko Polskiego [Warsaw, Stow. "Pamiec
Rabbi Rosengarten gives names, ranks, birthdates and
birthplaces, parents' names, date of death and place of burial
in the USSR, the Mideast or Europe.
From a posting by
Anna Przybyszewska Drozd & Yale J. Reisner The Ronald S. Lauder
Foundation Genealogy Project
at the Jewish Historical Institute of Poland (Warsaw) firstname.lastname@example.org
"Jewish Roots in Poland: Pages from the Past and Archival Inventories" Authored by Miriam Weiner. Published by the Miriam Weiner Roots to Roots Foundation, Inc. The book lists the records on a town by town basis in the various branches of the Polish State Archives and town Civil Records Offices (Urzad Stanu Cywilnego).
"Jewish Trade in Krakow at the end of the XVI Century and in the XVII, 1593 to 1683" Selected records from Krakow customs registers and published in Krakow in 1995.
"Jews-Officers and Enlisted Men in the Polish Army, Prisoners of War
German captivity 1939-1945" Authored by Eng. Benjamin Meirtchak and published in Israel by the Association of Jewish War veterans of Polish Armies In Israel. More details
"Konin - A Quest" Authored by Theo Richmond, published by Jonathan Cape Ltd in England in 1996. Later published by Vintage, Random House, in paperback in 1996 and also in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. ISBN 0-09-940981-X. The book contains fairly detailed local history including history of the town from its founding.
"The Lords' Jews, Magnate-Jewish Relations in the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth during the 18th Century" Authored by M. J. Rosman. It an informative work of research on the "Arrendator" or lessee system.
Another source that offers a list of business owners (mostly Jewish) from circa 60 shtetls - cities in Eastern Poland (1919 - 1939 ) from years 1923, 1925, 1928 and 1933. In this collection there are also views pre-1939 (on old postcards, photographs, or negatives) of many places especially from Eastern Poland including some with synagogue postcards. Contact: Tomek Wisniewski 15-001 Bialystok, Poland
"Pinkas ha-Kehillot" of Poland" Volume 6 describes the regions of Posen, Pomerania (Pommern) and Danzig (Gdansk). It was published in Jerusalem in 1999 by Abraham Wein of the Yad Vashem Institution and describes thoroughly the main 66 communities of both north western provinces of Poland and a short summary about the 25 smaller communities.
"Poland" Authored by James A Michener and published in 1983 by Fawcett Books in New York ISBN 0-449-20587-8
"Polyn: Jewish life in the old country" Authored by Alter Kacyzne - many Warsaw photos along with photos of scenes in Makev; Lublin; Rayshe; Vashe; Vilna and more.
"Preserved Evidence: Ghetto Lodz" Volume 1 authored by Eilenberg-Eibeshitz of Haifa in 1998 indicates in 368 pages, evidences, events, notes and those surviving and dying in the Ghetto of Lodz.
"Slownik Geograficzny" Originally published in 1880 and reprinted in Warsaw in the 20th century. It is a dictionary of Greater Poland (includes modern Poland, Ukraine, Galicia, etc.) covers every farm or group of houses that had a name
"The Jewish Tavern-Keeper and His Tavern in Nineteenth Century
Polish Literature" Authored by Magdalena Opalski and published by The Zalman Shazar Center for the Furtherance of the Study of Jewish History in Jerusalem in 1986. See also the Encyclopedia Judaica.
Those in the alcohol trade were known as Propinacjz (small production, transport, inns often all together). Usually when vital records use the term "leaseholder" (arendar) this involves inn keeping in the alcohol trade. It is a common (and often not necessarilyflattering image) of the rural Jew in Polish literature and art.
"TheNaturalized Jews of the Grand Duchy of Posen in 1834 and 1835"
"Silent Places: Landscapes of Jewish
Life and Loss in Eastern Europe" (Overlook, $50) collects
photographs by Jeff Gusky, a doctor of emergency medicine who
revisited the homes, cemeteries and synagogues of the vanished
Jewish community in Poland. Gusky's haunting
black-and-white images testify to a vibrant community of Jews
who lived and worked in these places for nearly 1,000 years
before the Holocaust. Gusky, now of Dallas, attended
Washington State University and got his medical degree at
University of Washington.
"Studies in Polish Jewry - Volume 8: Jews in Independent Poland
1918-1939" Authored by Antony Polonsky and published in Washington, DC by The Littman library of Jewish Civilization in 1994.
"The Vatican and the Jews" Authored by Arieh Doobov and published by the Jerusalem/World Jewish Congress in 1998. Memory or reincarnated responsibility? ISBN 0793-2596 (Policy Forum, 15).
"Warszawa Business Directory - 1870"
"Words to Outlive Us" ; Eye Witness accounts from the Warsaw Ghetto" Of great interest in particular is a register of about 200 names of prisoners in Pawiak Prison together with their places of residence prewar throughout Poland.
Contains hundreds of postcard reproductions and many show names of shops. The book is available on-line at major on-line book stores.
"Yizkor Books for our Region"
Authored by Warren Blatt. A complete bibliography of all Yizkor Books published for towns located in Kielce or Radom Guberniya. http://www.jewishgen.org/krsig
"Finding information from one of the 1790s census collections is no easy job!" Even if one does find the material for a town of interest, it is possible that the records will have no names--but instead just general information on the town and its population."
The first census for the independent Polandwas taken in 1921 and a second census was taken in 1931.
In reviewing the Oswiecim (Oshpitzin) Yizkor book, there is a reference made of these censuses. The Oswiecim Jewish Center indicates that in the State Archive in Oswiecim, there are documents (forms with the information about the people) regarding the 1900 and 1910Austro-Hungarian Census.
I would suggest to the researcher of the following sites, to also check the other two Baltic Country sites, including Estonia and Lithuania, as well as Belarus and Russia as there may very well be some cross references as the country borders changed many times between wars.
A valuable site to help find a person, maps, etc. - and type in the name of any country you wish to research. This service is free.
Global Gazetteer A great web site. It is a directory of 2,880,532 of the world's cities and towns, sorted by country and linked to a map for each town. A tab separated list is available for each country.
Powiat= district and is usually followed by the gmina (township) and parafia (parish)
State Archives in Warsaw
Glowne Akt Dawnych)
00-263 Warsawa, uk. Dluga 7
Before writing to the Polish Archives, Irene Newhouse
that one should be aware that the easy sources of vital records
for individuals have already been microfilmed by the Mormons.
There is only one class of vital records for individuals not
microfilmed, according to Irene, and that's the duplicate church
registers that were filed in lieu of civil records pre-1874 in
those parts of Poland under Prussian/German rule. Some of
these have survived when the originals, which have been filmed, have not. Also, Irene notes that Jewish vital records in Poland were often not in Polish. Note that to write to the Archives, you can write in English. To a registry office, local official, etc., write in Polish. Writing in the language of the person that you are writing to is always best ... it exhibits respect and courtesy. Make it as easy as possible if you want the quickest response. Six to eight months for a reply, is not uncommon.
2. Scroll down to the 'Enter' button and click once The page will be headed SEZAM (Archival Holdings Registration System SEZAM)
3. Scroll to the bottom and
Click on SEZAM
(You are at the SEZAM database whose purpose is to gather information on the national archival holdings preserved by various institutions). It includes all elements of a traditional list of Fonds to be found at State Archives as well as additional data, which have been, up until now, included into a fond card or neglected in current finding and registration aids.) Additional information about SEZAM can be found at http://www.archiwa.gov.pl/sezam/index.eng.html
4. Under 'Fond Name' enter the town name you are interested in
(Note that the results will be in Polish)
To have the Archives do the research for you, click on 'Intro' from the menu on the left side of the web page, then Click on the "How to Get Access to Archive Collections?' Note that inquiries commissioned by private persons (and pertaining to genealogical and property records) are subject to payment according to a standard price list binding in all state archives.
To get the addresses of Polish archives, simply go to Google and type in Archiwum (town name) in the search box
There is no need to obtain the permission of the General Director of State Archives for the foreigners wishing to use certain records re genealogical and property matters kept in the state archives. In such cases the permission is given by the director of the certain state archives (from July 3, 2000).
Also, note that before you commission research at the Polish State Archives, be aware that there are more than 2,000 microfilms of Jewish vital records of Poland in the LDS collection -- mostly from 1825 to 1865/1875. These can be ordered and viewed at the LDS Family History Centers around the world. About half of these films, mostly from pre-1865, are available at the Douglas Goldman Genealogy Center at Beth Ha'tefutsorth, Museum of the Diaspora in Tel Aviv.
Should you contact the Polish State Archives, the following information should be of value. Len Markowitz email@example.com offered the following in a posting at Gesher Galicia SIG: 'I guess that it is time to repeat the method that I have used successfully to send money to Poland. Admittedly, it has been about five years since I have last done this, but it was done on at least 4 occasions.
To pay for information from the Polish State Archives, purchase a Postal Money Order at your local post office for about $1 - not an International Postal Money Order, which costs about $8.50 (five years ago). Address the Postal Money Order to the bank, including the bank account number, suggested previously by the Polish State Archives. Also make a copy of the Postal Money Order and send it with your next letter to the Polish State Archives'
Another method of handling payment to the Polish archives is to check out a personal PayPal account
http://www.paypal.com This commercial service offers a wide variety of payment options, including electronic transfers from your bank account to another. PayPal sends you a confirmation of your transaction.
AGAD Archives Archiwum Glowne Akt Dawnych (The Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw - Ancient Acts archive of Poland) (see also below "Jewish Record Indexing) - this site will provide you with the ability to order records from their archives. This is a repository of 2,010 Jewish metrical books for the area of the former L'viv, Stanislawow, and Tarnopol Voyevodship (now L'viv, Ivano Frankiv'sk, and Ternopil oblasts in Ukraine). These registers are mainly for the period from 1877 to 1899 when these areas were a part of the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia. Other Jewish metrical books for this area will be found in the L'viv branch of the Ukraine State Archives. While the number of records in each volume varies widely, the overall total is estimated to be close to two million. The web site is
JRI-Poland database has added more indices from these records - over 20,000 - which include Tarnopol birth and marriage indices and Trembowlabirth indices. Also included are Kozowa births from 1877 to 1892; Tarnopol births from 1866 to 1897, Marriages from 1878 to 1897 and Trembowla births from 1877 to 1891.
Archiwum Glowne Akt Dawnych ul. Dluga 7 00-263 WARSZAWA Polska (Poland)
The Archives is the repository of 2,010 Jewish metrical books for the area of the former Lwów, Stanislawow and Tarnopol Voyevodship (now known as L'viv, Ivano Frankivsk and Ternopol Oblasts in Ukraine). These registers are mainly for the period from 1877-1899 when these areas were a part of the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia. Other Jewish metrical books for this area will be found in the L'viv branch of the Ukraine state Archives. The overall total of records is estimated to be close to two million and are generally written in Polish. There are separate books for births, marriages and deaths. Information about the JRI-Poland AGAD Archives Project can be viewed at
Each year, the Warsaw Srodmiescie USC Archives transfers vital records registers to AGAD. These are registers that only include vital records that have now become more than 100 years old. This transfer occurs in compliance with Polish privacy laws that permit public access to vital records only after 100 years. Recently, AGAD had received many registers that contain records mainly for 1898 and 1899. These registers will be available for indexing about September 2001.
Polish Archives CD The CD will not only contain data on basic facts such as births, marriages and deaths, but also on remaining series of documents preserved in Polish State Archives and will include Jewish records
The CD will be searchable by town name, religious group and other methods. There will be two language modes: Polish and English. Check this web site for further information
CCW Collection A collection of the 'schedule of payments to maintain the synagogue in many Jewish cities and these rosters exist in the Main Archive of Old Acts (AGAD) in Warsaw as well as in regional archives.
The Polish Archives web site is in Polish, although there is a link shown to convert it to English, however, it does not work at the present time. At this site, though, you can discern Names and phone numbers for various personnel at the Head Office of the State Archives including email address
Central State Historical Archives L'viv Tsentralny Derzhavnyi Istorychnyi Arkhiv (TsDIA-L) 290008, L'viv - 8, pl. Sobornosti Square 3-a, Ukraine Phone/Fax: (0322) 72 35 08 or 72 30 63
Director is Orest Laroslavoych Matsiuk; Deputy Director (Directress) is Diana Peltc who, it has been noted, forwards personal researcher requests to a "freelancer" who then increases the price, but the cost is still relatively reasonable
Hours are Monday through Friday 9 to 3 pm.
http://lemko.org/ then select Genealogy and then Archives
A short article quoted individuals who state that the L'viv State Archive will be closed for an indefinite period beginning May 30, 2005 and was caused by a problem with the theft of documents from the Archive. A press release in English can be found at
Director of the Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine 110 Solomianska Street, 24, 252601 Kiev, Ukraine
Branches of the Polish State Archives
house Jewish vital record registers for a number of
towns. To determine whether your town is in one of the archive
projects, click the above menu to select an archive. The archive
number beside the archive name is the official number used by
the Polish State Archives
Contact the Registry Office (Urzad Stanu Cywilnego, USC) in Poland directly, rather than a Consulate. The USC will perform the search for records and will send it to the Polish Consulatenearest to your residence. You will be billed for their efforts, Upon payment by money order or certified check, the Consulate will then send any material that the Registry Office has. Request from the manager of the USC a complete extract of the entry, rather than a brief certificate
Liquor labels from a distillery owned
by M. Rajzman and K. Kopelzon, Luboml, Poland
(now Lyuboml, Ukr.), 1920s–1930s. (American
Folklife Center, Library of Congress)
Tarnobrzeg had a brewery. I have a postcard of it. There is a very small book, in Polish at the FHL in Salt Lake about the Breweries in Poland, only part two. I do not remember the name of the book from a posting by Gayle Schlissel Riley
"Handlowa ksiega adresowa Polski i Gdanska"
A 1923 commercial directory for the entire country, including Gdansk (Danzig), totaling about 700 pages. Includes Timeline of Polish history; map of Polish railroads, Officials of the republic of Poland, statistical data, etc.
"Spis abonentow warszawskiej sieci telefonow"
This is a 540 page white pages directory of Warsaw and environs on the eve of WW II, along with a listing of businesses and advertisements arranged by product or service. This directory would be of interest to researchers who lost relatives, friends, and/or property during the war.
Ada Holtzman's has posted her article title: " My Heart Breaks With Those Broken Stones..." about
Matsevot in Jewish cemeteries in
Poland. It was translated from Hebrew by Ellen Stepak from the IGS (The Israel Genealogical Society).
"We Remember The Jewish Communities of Poland!" - Here is a list of Jewish communities destroyed in the holocaust on 1.9.1939. Editor: Avraham Klevan. The site lists the names of 4,500 Jewish communities which were destroyed in the holocaust. They are recorded according to the geographical boundaries of 1938, before the territorial changes which were caused by the expansion of Nazi
Germany. Included are the names of the settlements in which the number of Jews exceeded several dozen, and in which there were Jewish communal services and institutions. Thousands of settlements in there lived a smaller number of Jews are not mentioned here. In Hebrew, the names of the communities are spelled phonetically. However, some names are written as they were pronounced by the Jewish inhabitants themselves.
word for village.
Staedtel in German)
has a particular meaning in terms of medieval law (walls,
burghers, a charter, independent government, etc.).
It's the diminutive of
the term for city is
with the diminutive
meaning about the same thing as
for village/Dorf is
which is why there are over 100 places in
And you thought we had it rough with all the
In my father's region of origin--Silesia,
now part of
-- there was one
that was probably founded by
around 1650. It was one of the few villages in that part of the
world to have a synagogue very early; and the only non-city in
with a large--possibly majority--Jewish
for many years. The name of the place:
From a posting by
Meest-Boston delivers US dollars, sea and air parcels, food parcels, equipment and electronics, letters and small packages to Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Poland and other countries. More services are available
Emigration to British Mandate Palestine in the 1930s
The names of many of these Jews who were able to leave Poland for Palestine are available on an index of the passports issued at that time. The are taken from the holdings of the Jewish Historical Institute (JHI) in Warsaw. Eventually this index will be searchable as part of the JRI-Poland on-line database. Because Inter-war Poland included areas that are now part of Belarus, Lithuania and Ukraine, there are passports from towns such as:
Business 2 business company directory and business in Europe, yellow pages access, international and European business directory (professional services, addresses and business classifieds
to manage your list membership. All you then need do is enter the E-mail address where you want your copy of Gen Dobry sent. Reply to the automated confirmation E-mail. Be sure to read and reply to this confirmation E-mail.
The story of about 1,000 fighters and Jewish heroes during WW II, including biographies and pictures. Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum (Beit Lochamei Hagetaot) is available on-line
A Guberniya was an
administrative divisions of the Russian Empire: the
Polish territory annexed by Russia during the
partitions was divided into Gubernii. The word is
most often translated as "province" but a Guberniya was
not the same thing as a modern województwo of the
Republic of Poland, though that term also usually is
translated as "province"
One section of this
institution deserves particular attention: the one that dealt
with the census, population registers, granting of Russian
citizenship to foreigners, and the issuance of permits for
leaving a Guberniya, settling elsewhere and returning to
Poland. This department issued
passports, but the passports themselves are not found in the
files: they, of course, remained in the possession of those who
left the country. It also issue and kept files on missing
persons being south, and criminals suspected of crossing the
border illegally; it also issue permits for restaurants, hotels,
trade and even for leasing and buying landed estates. An
article on this subject which contains information on what might
be available in the files, was written by Iwona Dakiniewicz and
translated by William F. Hoffman is in the Avotaynu Spring 2012
This site is "in process" to create a computer database of indices to the 19th century Jewish vital records of Poland. It is a joint effort between the Jewish Records Indexing-Poland (JRI-Poland) and the Polish State Archives (AGAD, the Archiwum Glowne Akt Dawnych - The Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw). Over half a million Jewish Vital Records of Poland and data from more than 115 towns are now searchable
"In a statistical studies of Jewish demographics in the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth during the 18th century, it shows that early teen marriages were the norm among one-quarter of the Jewish population, ostensibly the more affluent class, i.e. it was in those families best able to support grandchildren while they still had children to support that the mother's age at first birth tended to be lowest."
"The traditional ages for Jewish marriages were 18-20 for boys, 16-18 for girls. The couple was billeted in their parental home, usually the bride's, at least until the husband was old enough to support his family on his own." From a posting on JewishGen by Norman H. Carp-Gordon
Established about fifty years ago as Poland's Jewish community sought to re-establish its institutional life after the Holocaust. The Association owns a vast archival collection, rich with primary source materials on the lives and deaths of Jews and Jewish communities throughout Poland and in adjoining regions historically connected with Poland.
These holdings, ranging from the 18th century to the present day, survived thorough a combination of luck, ingenuity, the heroic deeds of historians and archivists (i.e. the Warsaw ghetto historian Emanuel Ringelblum his 'Oneg Shabbes' conspiracy to preserve the history of the Holocaust experience), the compulsive record-keeping of Nazi operatives and deliberate post-war efforts of scholars and communal institutions.
Now, times have changed and it is possible in theory to research Jewish history and Jewish family ties freely. Further information available from:
Jagielski, Director of History and Documentation. He is
the "heart and mind" of the Institute. Jan has an
amazing amount of information in his head as well as in
his office, and he is very well organized according to
There are Youth Centers inGdansk, Krakow, Lodz, Warsaw and Wroclawand a summer camp and educational retreat inSrodborowthat is sponsored by the Lauder Foundation.
Jewish Museum in Warsaw
Contains many items from the Holocaust. One of the main instigators in developing this Holocaust
memorial Museum was Dr. Emmanuel Ringelblum. He is noted for his thesis on the Jewish community of Warsaw during the Middle Ages.
During the war, Ringelblum was in charge of soup kitchens for distressed Jews in Warsaw. In May 1940, this became a full-fledged underground organization. In November, 1940 he created an archive project known as "Oneg Shabbat," because meetings were held on the Sabbath. Members of the group began to record current events and those who escaped from concentration camps also recorded their experiences.
The group recorded various aspects of life including mutual help, cultural and religious life, relationships between Poles and Jews, and between Germans and Jews. In August 1942, when massive deportations escalated, the first part of the archives was hidden in ten tin boxes in the cellar of a house. On the eve of Pesach in 1943, the second part of these documents were hidden in the same house in two aluminum milk cans. The third section was hidden days before the final destruction of the ghetto, somewhere near 34 Swietojerska St.
The first two sections of the archives have been found and the third lost section is now believed to be buried in the ground of what is now the Chinese embassy in Warsaw. An attempt is being made to recover these important documents. This information was obtained from an article published in The American Jewish World (Minneapolis) on May 2, 2003 and authored by Rabbi Bernard Solomon Raskas.
Mike Rosenzweig, Ph. D. Check out his web site re Jewish-Polish Heritage; Early History of the Jews in Poland; Jewish History in Poland from 1800 - 1939; Jewish History in Poland - from 1939-1945; Synagogues in Poland; Synagogues in Eastern Europe; Poland Revisited Tips;
A searchable database of indices to 19th century records from current and former territories of Poland.
Indexing of 45,000 records from 14 towns in the Suwalki region was completed. Comprised are records primarily from 1826-1880. The towns are (current Lithuanian name is in parentheses) Bakalarzewo, Berzniki, Filipow, Krasnapole, Lozdzeije (Lazdijai), Olita (Alytus), Przerosl, Punsk, Sejny, Sereje (Seirijai), Suwalki, Szaki (Sakiai), Wiejsieje (Veisiejai) and Wizajny. Also eight Polish town indexing projects are completed: Bialobrzegi, Daleszyce, Jozefow Ordynacki, Konskie, Pakosc, Polaniec and Radoszyce. Additional data has been added for Bytom, Checiny, Gliwice, Gliwice County, Karczew, Ozorkow, Sobkow and Wlosszczowa.
To determine if your shtetl has been microfilmed, check the 'LDS Film List' on this site. It is color coded to indicate the status of the indexing. Then check the 'Database Center' which records have indexed. Bear in mind that this is a project in progress and perhaps only 15% percent of all records that exist have been indexed to date (10/25/01), so don't get discouraged if your search fails.
There are 2,010 Jewish Vital Record Registers for 90 towns in the AGAD Archives and includes 87 Administrative District towns in the Eastern part of the former Austrian province of Galicia.
Sygnatura A volume number and 'akt' is the document number inside a specific volume.
If you are able to determine that a record exists for your shtetl, you can then order the microfilm listed on the JRI-Poland site. It costs about $3 and requires about 3 weeks to wait. When it is delivered to you, view it and print the record of your interest and then extract relevant information. In some cities, one can order these films via public reference library.
Jewish Records Indexing Indexing all Jewish vital records available in their Bialystok Branch of the Polish State Archives
In recent years, the LDS (Mormons) have made many updates to their catalogue. As a result, when Jewish records are included in Catholic Civil transcripts or other non-Jewish records, the catalogue typically so indicates. For areas covered by the former Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland), this almost always applies only to pre-1826 records. After 1825, in the Kingdom of Poland, separate civil registers begin for each religious community i.e. Roman Catholic, Jewish, Protestant, Russian Orthodox, etc.
This site offers The History of the Jews in Poland; Concentration and death camps; Family searching; Jewish names searching; Photos and more.
Institute of Warsaw
The Jewish Historical Institute focuses entirely on
the study of the history and culture of Polish Jews.
It is the largest depository of Jewish-related archival
documents, books, journals, ritual and art objects.
preservation of collections that document ten centuries
of Jewish experience in Poland allows for
research and education to be carried on. We believe that
education makes people aware of the history that
Poles and Jews shared and helps to overcome
Jews In Present Day Poland
Including commentary about a number of towns and their synagogues including Chmielnik, Gora Kalwaria, Kazimierz Dolny, Kielce, Tlomackie, Tykocin, Lasko, Zamosc, Lancut, Rzeszow and several others.
Several thousand Polish Jews managed to escape Poland just before WW II. The names of many of these Jews is now available on an index of the passports issued between 1929 and 1939 at this crucial time in Jewish history. The index are in the holdings of the Jewish Historical Institute (JHI) in Warsaw.
Because inter-war Poland included areas that are now part of Ukraine, as well as Belarus and Lithuania, there are passports from many towns that were part of Galicia. The 'Aliyah Passports' collection in the Archives of the Jewish historical Institute of Poland (Warsaw) consists of 3,754 Polish passports issued primarily during the 1930s to Polish citizens going to what was then British Mandate Palestine. There are 1,250 towns listed as "place of birth".
Emigrating Polish citizens, upon receiving identity documents in their new homeland, were supposed to turn in their Polish passports to the Polish Consulate at their destination. These invalidated passports were then sent by the local Polish Consulate back to the Foreign Ministry in Warsaw, where they were filed away in government archives. Some Polish Jewish emigrants to Palestine may have kept their passports, despite the regulations of the time, so if you do not find a particular name in this index, it does not mean that the individual did not emigrate.
Passports include date of birth, place of birth, last place of residence, occupation and civil status (single, married, etc.). The name of the child or the number of children appear in some instances. The photographs sometime include a husband and wife, or a husband and/or wife with the children.
JRI - Poland
A compilation of family names appearing one or more times in the vital records of a town. Transliterations of all variations in the spellings, as they were written by the town registrar in the civil records, are included in each surname list. The JRI - Poland List provides an aid to researchers who may not recall initially, nor search for all the names in their various family branches, but whose memories may be sparked by scanning the list.
Polish landed gentry (often absentee landlords) from the joint Poland/Lithuania Commonwealth, which ruled the area for hundreds of years (1550-1795ish), actually *owned* whole towns, cities, and manorial estates; had private armies; and often offered protective charters for Jews whom they contracted with to run distilleries, inns, collect taxes from the
Belarusian peasants, provide services like shoemaking, etc., and basically act as middlemen between the Poles and the natives.
Asearchable database put together by a Polish NGO called Karta. It contains the names and a few vital details of Poles and other Polish Citizens (i.e. Jews) detained by the Soviets in the 1940's, after the Soviets invaded the western half of Poland. It is based on information recently released from Soviet archives. The database includes many who were later were in Ander's Army.
Osrodek Karta (Karta Center) is a non-profit, Polish
historical research center in Warsaw, whose work focuses
largely on the often hostile relationship, including shifting
borders, between Poland and Russia. They
produced a publication Indeks Represjonowanych (Index of
Victims of Soviet Repression), a 23 volume series that
identifies Jews and non-Jews deported from eastern Poland
during the 1939-41 Soviet occupation as well as Poles
held in Soviet prison camps as late as 1950. The
series also includes lists of persons who were executed in
various places in the Soviet Union, including the
Katyn Forest. Individuals are not identified by
religion. An article entitled
"East Poland Records -"TheKarta Collection"
Authored by Peter Lande, appears in the Spring 2011 issue of
You can search by any of the following:
Father's First Name
Date of Birth
Category of Repression
Help (in Polish)
"Apparently, the country had an intensely feudal character for hundreds of years, the effects of which have not completely worn off. Polish landed gentry (often absentee landlords) from the joint Poland/Lithuania Commonwealth, which ruled the area for hundreds of years (1550-1795ish), actually *owned* whole towns, cities, and manorial estates; had private armies; and often offered protective charters for Jews whom they contracted with to run distilleries, inns, collect taxes from the Belarusian peasants, provide services like shoemaking, etc., and basically act as middlemen between the Poles and the natives.
The landed gentry were called "magnates" and were often princes and counts and other kinds of lesser nobility. After the Czar took over this region (1795-ish), many Jews performed the same services for the Russian nobility who had simply exchanged places with their Polish peers. Interestingly, there was an unusual urban-rural split in Belarus: towns and cities were populated almost entirely by the landed gentry and Jews (the only groups allowed to travel in the region), while the countryside was populated almost exclusively by the native Belarussians who spoke their own language (Belarusian, rather than Polish or Russian) and had a different religion (Greek Orthodox, rather than Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox, or Jewish), and were mostly involved in agricultural activities."
"According to a Google search, the term "Korchma" is currently a kind of restaurant. Perhaps your relative ran an inn or a distillery for the prince for whom he may have worked. I hope this helps. If I'm wrong about any of the info above, I hope that someone will correct me." From a posting by Laura Moss Gottlieb Wisconsin, USA
Map of Galicia 1875 Some maps will show the administrative divisions. Once connected, select 'Site Search' from the left hand side menu, type in Galician Maps and note the several maps displayed. The first one is the administrative map. You can save the map image to your computer by using the right click button on your mouse and saving the image/target as a bitmap file. Then you can print it enlarged for easier viewing.
Map of Poland 1920 to 1939 In color - by Administrative Districts - Second Republic of Poland's Polesie Woj: (Polesie, the political/administrative woj., is the area colored tan, where Bres'c'n. Bugiem is labeled)
Map of Poland 19,500 locations in Poland and includes street maps and coordinates. You can zero in on almost any Polish city and in addition there are over 9,100 European place names, unfortunately the information is in Polish, but it seems easily understood.
Open Street Maps
The crowd-sourced mapping projectOpenStreetMaphas
amassed a million contributors since its inception in
2005 and, according to navigation app maker Skobbler,
boasts greater accuracy in
than rivals such as Google Maps. I tried the site
and found an accurate drawing of my father's ancestral
Almost every country is available as is most towns
Polish Maps This site offers the Hofer series of maps, scale 1:200,000, with German/Polish place name equivalents right down to the small villages and an index. At present, the series covers only the former northern Prussian and southwestern Silesian regions. Posen is promised in a few months and others are coming
Polisia The physical-geographical region, is a region lying between the Belarusian Upland to the north, the Volhynia-Kholm Upland and the Dnieper Upland to the south, the Buh River and Podlachia to the west, and the Dnieper Lowland to the east.
Click on any one of the town names below to be taken to an informational page site
This site refers to "records of the Austrian empire in the counties of Gorlice (1901-1918); Jaslo (1853-1918); Sanok (1873-1918); from inter-war Poland: Gorlice (1918-1939); Jaslo (1918-1939); Sanok (1918-1939). Also from the Nazi occupied Sanok County (Der Kreis Hauptmann-Sanok) from the years 1939-1944 in the Polish State Archives in Przemysl.
In addition to images of the letters themselves, the ShtetLinks site shows the mostly Yiddish signatures on the letters with translations provided by Mindy Crystel Gross. The signatures and translations are not shown in the Hoover Digest article, but it does provide a reference and a URL to the Bielsk Podlaski ShtetLinks site. From a posting by Andrew Blumberg on JewishGen
Polish Military Blouse
In 1937, there were 13,500 Jews in the Polish Army, and during WW II, some 130,000 Jewish Poles fought alongside their countrymen in various formations, including forces based in Britain, in the Polish resistance movement and alongside the Soviet Army.
The lists with about more than 7000 names are not included in the web page.
The author also published recently another book: "Jewish Officers in the Polish Armed Forces 1939-1945" with more than 4000 names.
Eng. Benjamin Meirtchak who was born in Wloclawek, Polandis the President of the Association of Jewish War Veterans of Polish Armies in Israel, the Chairman of the Central Committee of the Association of Disabled Veterans of Fight against Nazism in Israel, and the Secretary General of the
Association of Polish Jews in Israel
Central Library of the Polish Army
Military records can be a useful source of genealogical information. In the context of Galician Poland (1772-1918) many of our male ancestors undertook military service freely, while others were obliged to go on active duty for 2 or 3 years, followed by perhaps 8-10 years in reserve units. The army kept detailed records on its personnel at all levels and useful information can be gleaned from these. Records for the period up until 1869 were retained in Vienna at the Vienna Kriegsarchiv and has also been extensively filmed by the Mormon Church and can be traced through the Family History catalogue.
If your ancestor served in the Polish Army (post 1917), you can send inquiries to this address:
Major Zdzislaw G. Kowalksi, M.A. Chief Archival Information Department Centralne Archiwum Wojskowe 00-910 Warszawa, Poland
They do not have a name card-index of soldiers, however, they do have an incomplete name card-index of officers. In order to improve your chances for a successful search, you need to provide them with the following information (to the best of your ability). Reply time is approximately two months.
Full Name Name of Father Date of birth Place of birth Date of joining the Army Name/Number of Regiment Progress of Military Service (other units, ranks, town of service) Date of leaving the Army
It is also possible to write for copies of personal records from years up to 1869 to the Archive in Vienna. Kriegsarchiv Nottendorfergasse 2, A-1030 Wien Austria. Further information can be found at Here you will find an "Austrian Recruitment Search"
Polish Army pre - WW II
Every young, healthy man was obliged to common military service; Registration was required at 18, and men were called up at 21. Total length of required service was for two years. The reserve obligation was after active service (6 to 8 weeks per year) for soldiers and non-commissioned officers to age 40 - for officers to age 50; assigning to geographical units was changing in time before the Second World War. The reserve service not always assigned to local geographical units.
At the outbreak of WW II some 100,000 Jews served in the Polish army. Mr. Benjamin Meirtchak, president of the "Association of Jewish War Veterans of Polish Armies in Israel" has compiled several thousand names Jewish soldiers of the Polish army killed in action. The address is: 158 Dizengoff Str.158 Tel-Aviv, Israel
Tel: 3 5225078
The graves of Jewish officers and enlisted men - soldiers of the Polish Army who lost their lives in the defense of Warsaw in 1939, as well as a mass grave for 300 victims of the Nazis are located in the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery
Was there a relation between Polish partisans and the Russian military? That relation was generally one of extreme hostility. The Polish resistance during the war was largely in the form of the anti-Communist Home Army (AK), which hated the Russians as much as the Germans. Anti-Semitism was another general characteristic of the AK, and the Yizkor books are thick with the Jews who died at the hands of the AK.
When Jews fled to the Ukraine and were in a partisan unit, it would not have been in the context of being a Polish serviceman but as a Jew whose prior military experience probably made him a useful member of a Communist partisan band that operated behind German lines in the Ukraine. These very effective groups were essentially controlled fromMoscow, and unlike the AK would have welcomed an able Jewish fighter.
From a posting by Alan Rems
General Haller's Army (GHA)
The GHA was originally formed in 1917 as the Polish Army in France. It was also known as the "blue Army" for the color of its uniforms. Many of its soldiers were Americans of non-Jewish Polish ancestry. They fought on the Western Front.
After the end of WW I, the GHA participated in the liberation of parts of Poland and the western Ukraine from the Red Army and Ukrainian forces. For that campaign, it recruited from among captured members of the Polish contingents of the Austro-Hungarian Army held in Allied prisoner-of-war camps. There is anecdotal evidence that many Galicians, including Jews, enlisted in the GHA. This information offered by Edward Goldstein, Editor, The Galitzianer
When visiting Israel visit the Kibbutz Lochamei Hagethaot (Kibbutz of the Fighters of the Ghettos) located outside of Nahariya in the north of Israel. They have a wonderful museum called Beit Lohamei Hagethaot which is also a research center of the Shoah and Gevura (Heroism i.e. resistance). Here you will find information about the history of the Warsaw Ghetto.
This newspaper was published daily in Warszawa from 1923 until August 1939. There is a database of Death Notices, 1923, 1937-1938. The Warszawa Research Group has indexed the death notices from Nasz Przeglad, which was published from 1923 to 1939.
This is a newspaper that accepts ads for those who are looking for anyone who had Ukrainian family in southeast Poland which was dispossessed by the Poles in 1946-7 and sent to either western Ukraine or Northeast Poland. E-mail
Nasze Slowo, ul
Nowogrodzka 15,00-511 Warszawa
Telephone:621 37 55 Fax: 621 37 50
"I am informed by a very reliable Jewish source in Polandthat the White Pages were removed from the web for reasons connected with privacy concerns. I am looking for an alternative access. From a posting by Jacob Rosen in Israel
No partitions of Polandoccurred in the 1800s. The third and last was in 1797. Since the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, and the Congress of Vienna of 1815 and up until the end of WW I, large parts of Poland belonged to the Russian Empire. Even "Congress Poland" was a semi-autonomous territory annexed to the Russian Empire and its inhabitants were Russian citizens.
A list of surnames for researching genealogy in the former historical borders of Poland, including Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Moravia, Hungary, Russia, the Balkans and East Prussia.
2D-3D Company conducts historical researches concerning family ancestral roots. They will locate and investigate present and late relatives, ancestors, heirs and missing family members and store and verify genealogical documents. Poland, 92-751Lodz, Chalasinskiego 10. Telephone: +48 42 / 671 31 88, +48 / 693 66 99 33 -
Historical and Genealogical Studio A group of young scientist from Wroclaw with a third degree of academic studies at University of Wroclaw. Offers co-operation in the wide range of archival, library and regional research. Specializes in the studies focused on the former German area: Silesia, Pomerania, East Prussia and Greater Poland.
I noted in a posting on JewishGen by Steve Gold that Gayle Riley has a contact to do research in Krakow and she may be able to put you in touch with that researcher E-mail: Gayle at
These passports - issued between 1929 and 1939 -- not only bear photos and signatures of the bearers (in most cases) but the various official stamps and seals trace the entire route taken by the emigrant and (on occasion) onward travels to other countries, providing precise dates for each leg of the journey. Passports include date of birth, place of birth, last place of residence, occupation and civil status (single, married, etc.). The name of the child or the number of children appear in some instances. The photographs sometime include a husband and wife, or a husband and /or wife with the children.
Open to anyone with an interest in ethnic studies or the Polish experience in America. Members receive the quarterly newsletter, the biannual scholarly journal Polish American Studies and more.
Literally means gold (probably from golden or guiden) and is divided into smaller values of groszy (cents) One zloty is equal to 100 groszy. Naming currency dates to the 15th century. From the 15th century until the end of the 18th century, the Polish zloty was divided into groszy or 30 copper groszy. Poland lost its independence in 1795 and local currency became the currency of the occupiers: Russians, Prussians and Austrians.
From 1845, the Zloty had this much purchasing power in Krakow: Sofa = 27 zloty. At that time, the Zloty was divided into 30 groszy. In 1918, after independence, the country introduced currency called 'marka'. The Zloty was re-introduced in 1924. One zloty equaled 100 groszy and Zloty equals grams of the market value of gold. In 1924, 1 US Dollar = 5.18. In 1925, 1 US Dollar = 6.90 zlotys
What could a Zloty buy in 1845? A Zloty, at that time was divided into 30 groszy. An Ash wood table with a drawer would have cost 27 zlotys. Today it is divided into smaller values of groszy (cents) One Zlotyis equal to 100 groszys.
Information concerning the proper spelling of many of the towns , along with information on the name of the "former district" and the "current district" and an indication of the record years available are on-line. They were microfilmedby the FHC (FamilyHistory Center) and the original records are at the Roman Catholic Diocesan Archive in Tarnow. The majority of these records are in Latin and represent the Lemko Region.
From this website you may research your Jewish roots, find info about Jewish cemeteries and synagogues, find info about the Holocaust, find photos of towns and Jewish places in Poland, use translation services (Polish-English) and read the history of Polish Jews
Polish Letter Writing Guides
Several different templates, both in English and in Polish, allowing you to write to Archives, etc. This site also offers good information on searching and definitions of popular words in the Polish Language.
firstname.lastname@example.org the following in a posting at Gesher Galicia SIG: 'I guess that it is time to repeat the method that I have used successfully to send money to Poland. Admittedly, it has been about five years since I have last done this, but it was done on at least 4 occasions. To pay for information from the Polish State Archives, purchase a Postal Money Order at your local post office for about $1 - not an International Postal Money Order, which costs about $8.50 (five years ago). Address the Postal Money Order to the bank, including the bank account number, suggested previously by the Polish State Archives. Also make a copy of the Postal Money Order and send it with your next letter to the Polish State Archives'
Contains a list showing most of the hundreds of town name changes from German to Polish in 19th Century Posen Province. Be aware that Jewish families are also listed often in the Catholic and Evangelical registers.
This information posted by Miriam Margolyes
The Main and Regional Archives of the Polish State Archives System Can respond to inquiries which are written in Polish. However, if you contact local registry offices (known as Urzad Stanu Cywilnego, USC), you can write in English, French or German. The Archives and USCs will always respond in Polish.
When you contact the Polish State Archives, they always state what relevant records they believe they have. If you send them money, and they cannot produce any records, they will not refund. The Director is Dr. Daria Nalecz. The Archives charge $15.00 per hour research fee which does not apply when your order specific records by their Year and Akt (record) number. Using thelink, you will obtain the search results and it will also include a link to the order form, pre-addressed to the Polish State Archives. Each record copy is $10.00
email@example.com offered the following in a posting at Gesher Galicia SIG: 'I guess that it is time to repeat the method that I have used successfully to send money to Poland. Admittedly, it has been about five years since I have last done this, but it was done on at least 4 occasions. To pay for information from the Polish State Archives, purchase a Postal Money Order at your local post office for about $1 - not an International Postal Money Order, which costs about $8.50 (five years ago). Address the Postal Money Order to the bank, including the bank account number, suggested previously by the Polish State Archives. Also make a copy of the Postal Money Order and send it with your next letter to the Polish State Archives'
Materials in the Polish State and Other Archives in Przemysl - this site refers to 'records of the Austrian Empire in the counties of Gorlice (1901-1918); Jaslo (1853-1918); Sanok (1873-1918); from inter-war Poland; Gorlice (1918-1939) Jaslo (1918-1939); Sanok (1918-1939). Also from the Nazi occupied Sanok County (Der Kreis Hauptmann-Sanok) from the years 1939-1944 in the Polish State Archives in Przemysl Want to seePrzemysl today - live?
At one time there were over six thousand synagogues scattered throughout Poland. There are only two synagogues in all of Poland where religious services are regularly conducted, one in Warsaw and the other in Krakow. Information obtained from
The exhibition of Moshe Verbin' models of the destroyed wooden synagogues of Poland in the 17th and 18th Century, is now on a permanent display at "ORT" College in Givat Ram Jerusalem, Israel. The models and the documentation about each synagogue are in two display windows in the main corridor of the college, which is situated on the right side of the entrance to the Hebrew university. The address is:
"Without regard to the fact whether with building or not, all parcels in Poland are registered in so called ground books. The groundbooks are run by proper departments of the regional courts. It would certainly be better if you knew the register number of that parcel (LWH or KW) but even without it, although it takes a while, you may check the current state of the property - to whom is it currently registered etc." G. Gembala Krakow, Poland
Chief Rabbi of Poland in 2005 is Michael Schudrich.
Rabbi of Krakow- the first since WW II is Avraham Flaks
The chief Rabbi of Slonim was Rabbi Yehuda Leib Fein who served as the Vice Chief Rabbi of Poland until the occupation of Poland by both Germany and USSR in 1939. He was killed in the Slonim Ghetto with 1,200 men of this community on July 17, 1941, the first massacre of Jews and the beginning of the destruction of the Jewry in Eastern Europe. List of Polish Rabbis
Search Engines Tip: If there is a site that you are interested in, but it is written in Polish, I can suggest cutting out the site or a phrase from the page and paste it into the search engines. This gives a larger range of hits since the search engines look at the way a word is structured, not necessarily what it means. Here are two search engines that I have used successfully:
(This is a program that you will love, once it is installed on your computer and can be used for many searches).
An organization dedicated to the preservation and propagation of information relating to the Jewish communities of Poland ... be it genealogical and historical data of the past, or be it current events of today and projects for the future. Shoreshim is a non-profit organization run by individuals who are devoted researchers in genealogy and Polish Jewish history.
Letter Writing Guide The Polish Genealogical Society has a web site that has a Polish Letter Writing Guide
The Mormon Family History Library Center Sells a 'Resource Guide for a reasonable price ($1?) that contains a fairly long listing of Polish phrases. This is not on the web but is handy to buy and carry around with you.
No recommendation is made or implied, but you can try to negotiate with Yuri Slisaruk, Kyiv, Ukraine at
firstname.lastname@example.orgYuri is a Ukrainian and can read and speak Polish, as well as Russian and Ukrainian.
Just in case you didn't think of it, contact a nearby university or college's foreign language department. They may offer to write letters and translate letters into English. A nominal fee is usually charged.
Translation Tip: Contact a Polish Museum or a Polish Language Newspaper. They may be willing to help you translate documents.
Just in case you didn't think of it, contact a nearby university or college's foreign language department. They may offer to write letters and translate letters into English. A nominal fee is usually charged.
"In Their Words: A Genealogist's Translation Guide to Polish German, Latin and Russian Documents" Volume I: Polish Authored by Jonathan D. Shea and William F. (Fred) Hoffman has been reviewed by Leonard F. Jakubczak, PhD
The Language and Lineage Press is an informal collaboration between Hoffman and Shea to publish information on Eastern European, and especially Polish genealogical research. This volume can be ordered from the Language and Lineage Press, 737 Hartfield Drive, North Aurora, IL 60542-8917, for $30, plus $5 postage and handling for delivery to addresses in the US via the
Krakow In an article in the 5/20/01 issue of the
Los Angeles Times Travel section, three hotels were mentioned; the modest, but clean Hotel Rezydent Grodzka 9 Street (011 48 12 429 5410 - Fax: 011 48 12 429 5576) and close to Market Square; Hotel Copernicus on winding Kanonieza 16 Street (011 48 12 431 1044 - Fax: 011 48 12 431 1140) located in a 14th century brick building; and the Francuski Pijarska 13 (Phone: 011 48 12 422 5122 - Fax: 011 48 12 422 5270) in a demure 1912 building with a sweeping central staircase on the north side of the old Town.
Alicja Marmol I received this message, and although it is of no personal value, it might be for someone else. "Hi, My name is Alicja. I live in Poland. I would like to learn Yiddish very much but I don't know how. I am a fan of Klezmer music. I can speak English and Polish of course. Best regards from the most beautiful country in Europe - Poland. Alicja Marmol
Lauren B. Eisenberg authored "Nineteenth Century Occupations" A statistical analysis of the distribution of the occupations of our ancestors, based upon the occupations of the fathers listed in the birth registrations of selected towns in the Kielce-Radom region for 1826 to 1835.
Jack Goldfarb's "Kin's Lost Gravestone Unearthed in Polish Town". This is the author's story of the discovery of his grandfather's tombstone dug up from a courtyard during construction in Staszow, November, 1998
Rita Permut's Poland Trip 1998. Her trip information may be shared by contacting her at